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C. A. Woodhouse, J. L. Russell, and E. R. Cook

vulnerability to the impacts of drought (e.g., National Research Council 2007 ). Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of drought, and the controls on these characteristics, is critical to planning for and mitigating the impacts of regional drought. A great deal of research has been focused on improving this understanding over the past decades, utilizing information from instrumental and paleoclimatic data as well as climate modeling. Spatial pattern of drought across North America have

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Jiafeng Wang and Xuebin Zhang

probability distribution of extreme values is considered. They also suggested the use of the r -largest method, that is, using the r -largest values rather than the single largest value in a season or a year, which potentially makes more efficient use of data for model fitting to improve the power. This study presents a method for construction of an extreme precipitation scenario over North America using a statistical downscaling approach. We improve the approach in Wang et al. (2004) by using the r

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William C. Ladwig and David J. Stensrud

1. Introduction During the summer months of July, August, and September, the semiarid regions of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico experience a wet season commonly referred to as the North American monsoon (NAM). The NAM is responsible for 60%–80% of the annual precipitation in northwest Mexico and 40% of the annual precipitation in the southwestern United States ( Douglas et al. 1993 ). The main precipitation region is along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre

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Clifford Mass, Adam Skalenakis, and Michael Warner

northern California, and modest increases in the remainder of coastal California. To appraise the significance of this pattern and the nature of extreme precipitation trends over the west coast of North America, the present study examines extreme precipitation events over the region for the period 1950–2009 using high-quality station data and the discharge rates of major, unregulated river systems. 3. Analysis of trends in precipitation This study makes use of precipitation records from the U

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N. Vigaud, A.W. Robertson, and M. K. Tippett

America than in Europe, despite previous studies demonstrating the advantages of weather typing over the United States ( Robertson and Ghil 1999 ; Stan and Straus 2007 ; Riddle et al. 2013 ; Robertson et al. 2015 ). The North American continent and upstream Pacific are both much larger and complex, and hence, there is a need to improve our knowledge of the influence of WRs on North American climate and underlying physical processes and to assess their S2S predictability. The reduced-order WR view

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Bor-Ting Jong, Mingfang Ting, and Richard Seager

1. Introduction Current climate models have not yet shown much skill in predicting Northern Hemisphere extratropical atmospheric circulations and hydroclimate variability over North America during the boreal summer season (e.g., Wang et al. 2009 ; Ding et al. 2011 ; Merrifield and Xie 2016 ; Chang et al. 2019 ; Malloy and Kirtman 2020 ), in stark contrast to the boreal winter season. Yet, El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the primary source of predictability on seasonal time scales

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David Small, Shafiqul Islam, and Mathew Barlow

1. Introduction Most studies of regional precipitation anomalies associated with regional teleconnection patterns such as the Pacific–North America (PNA) pattern or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) tend to focus on the winter. Few studies have examined interregional patterns of precipitation and the linkages to global and regional circulation patterns in seasons other than winter ( Kingston et al. 2006 ). This is a particularly important consideration because the largest trends in precipitation

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Benjamin I. Cook, Richard Seager, A. Park Williams, Michael J. Puma, Sonali McDermid, Maxwell Kelley, and Larissa Nazarenko

1. Introduction In the 1950s, a severe and prolonged drought affected much of North America, including northern Mexico, seven western states (California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas), much of the southeastern United States, and two major river basins (the Colorado and Rio Grande) ( Andreadis et al. 2005 ; Heim 2017 ; Nace and Pluhowski 1965 ; Quiring and Goodrich 2008 ). At its peak in 1956, this drought covered 51% of the contiguous United States ( Heim 1988 ), with

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Christopher L. Castro, Adriana B. Beltrán-Przekurat, and Roger A. Pielke Sr.

time scale and spatial variability on the continental scale, the atmospheric forcing is related primarily to naturally occurring atmosphere–ocean interactions, such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study investigates the statistical linkages between precipitation and land surface parameters in North America, specifically the contiguous United States and Mexico, within the recent observational record (since the late twentieth century). It is motivated by our prior work, which

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Eric D. Maloney, Suzana J. Camargo, Edmund Chang, Brian Colle, Rong Fu, Kerrie L. Geil, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, James Kinter, Benjamin Kirtman, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Kelly Lombardo, Lindsey N. Long, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, Kingtse C. Mo, J. David Neelin, Zaitao Pan, Richard Seager, Yolande Serra, Anji Seth, Justin Sheffield, Julienne Stroeve, Jeanne Thibeault, Shang-Ping Xie, Chunzai Wang, Bruce Wyman, and Ming Zhao

1. Introduction The twenty-first-century projections generated by phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5; Taylor et al. 2012 ) are analyzed here to assess climate change in North America (NA). This study accompanies two companion papers ( Sheffield et al. 2013a , hereafter Part I ; Sheffield et al. 2013b , hereafter Part II ) that assess the CMIP5 models’ potential to accurately simulate regional climate in the twentieth century. Additionally, it provides an overview

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