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Takashi M. Nagao, Kentaroh Suzuki, and Takashi Y. Nakajima

. J. Atmos. Sci. , 47 , 1878 – 1893 . Nakajima , T. , M. D. King , J. D. Spinhirne , and L. F. Radke , 1991 : Determination of the optical thickness and effective radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 48 , 728 – 750 . Nakajima , T. Y. , and T. Nakajima , 1995 : Wide-area determination of cloud microphysical properties from NOAA AVHRR measurements for FIRE and ASTEX regions . J. Atmos. Sci

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J. Li, J. G. D. Wong, J. S. Dobbie, and P. Chýlek

and Mishchenko 1995 ; Nemesure et al. 1995 ; Haywood et al. 1997 ; Grant et al. 1999 ; Kiehl et al. 2000 ). Compared with other types of aerosols, the optical properties and size distributions of sulfate aerosols are reasonably well known. In addition, chemical transport models (e.g., Langner and Rodhe 1991 ) make spatial and temporal distributions readily available, which provides a standard aerosol loading for intercomparison of atmospheric model calculations. Estimates of global mean

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German Vidaurre and John Hallett

: TRMM common microphysics products: A tool for evaluating spaceborne precipitation retrieval algorithms. J. Appl. Meteor. , 43 , 1598 – 1618 . 10.1175/JAM2151.1 Knollenberg, R. G. , 1981 : Techniques for probing cloud microstructure. Clouds: Their Optical Properties and Effects , P. V. Hobbs and A. Deepak, Eds., Academic Press, 15–89 . Korolev, A. , and Isaac G. A. , 2005 : Shattering during sampling by OAPs and HVPS. Part I: Snow particles. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 22 , 528

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Pengfei Tian, Lei Zhang, Xianjie Cao, Naixiu Sun, Xinyue Mo, Jiening Liang, Xuetao Li, Xingai Gao, Beidou Zhang, and Hongbin Wang

and clouds in atmospheric numerical models because of a limited understanding of the aerosol direct and indirect effects ( Ghan et al. 2012 ; Myhre et al. 2013 ), leading to the largest uncertainty in the estimation of the Earth–atmosphere system energy budget ( Loeb and Su 2010 ; Boucher et al. 2013 ; Stevens 2015 ). Researchers have attempted to study the optical properties of desert dust, biomass-burning, urban industrial, sea salt, and mixed-type aerosols ( Dubovik et al. 2002a ; Eck et al

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Jicheng Liu, Curtis E. Woodcock, Rae A. Melloh, Robert E. Davis, Ceretha McKenzie, and Thomas H. Painter

as well as canopy structure. As view angles increase away from nadir, less of the ground surface is visible in forested areas. Similarly, as the canopy cover of a forest increases, the VGF will also decrease. A quantitative understanding of these effects requires development of a model for the way the VGF varies as a function of view angle, forest canopy properties, and topography. Prior results indicate a geometric optical (GO) model captures the basic shape of the relationship between the VGF

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Eduardo Landulfo, Alexandros Papayannis, Ani Sobral Torres, Sandro Toshio Uehara, Lucila Maria Viola Pozzetti, Caio Alencar de Matos, Patricia Sawamura, Walter Morinobu Nakaema, and Wellington de Jesus

lidar systems; the first one is devoted to stratospheric studies ( Clemesha and Rodrigues 1971 ) and the second one, an elastic backscatter lidar system, is devoted to tropospheric aerosol profiling for air pollution applications ( Landulfo et al. 2004 ). The synergy of ancillary meteorological measurements and simultaneous investigations of the optical properties of the suspended aerosols (by sun photometers or spectrophotometers) can provide additional information for reducing the lidar data

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Alexander Smirnov, Brent N. Holben, Yoram J. Kaufman, Oleg Dubovik, Thomas F. Eck, Ilya Slutsker, Christophe Pietras, and Rangasayi N. Halthore

1. Introduction Aerosol science returned to prominence in the last decade due to clear evidence of anthropogenic impacts and the important role of aerosols in the radiative forcing of climate. It became evident that in order to understand the effect of greenhouse gases on past climates and on future climate change (e.g., Hansen et al. 2000 ) we need accurate information on aerosol optical properties ( Penner et al. 1994 ) and their direct and indirect (through cloud modification) interaction

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Joël Jaffrain and Alexis Berne

, the size, shape, and fall velocity of raindrops are of particular interest. The shape and fall velocity of a raindrop can be accurately derived from its equivolume diameter (e.g., Beard 1977 ; Andsager et al. 1999 ). Therefore, a fundamental property of rainfall for the investigation of its microstructure is the (rain)drop size distribution (DSD). Rain, and hence DSD, is highly variable in time and space at inter- and intraevent scales as well as for different geographic locations ( Tokay and

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S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, I. Gordon, and A. Fong

2388 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME34Lidar-Derived Cloud Optical Properties Obtained during the ECLIPS Program S. R. PAL, A. I. CARSWELL, I. GORDON, AND A. FONGInstitute for Space and Terrestrial ~cience and Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada(Manuscript received 24 October 1994, in final form 10 May 1995)ABSTRACT This paper presents the statistical properties of

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J. G. DeVore

analogous situation exists with the shape of solar extinction spectra—for example, as seen through aerosol layers. In this case the wavelength dependence of the aerosol optical depth depends sensitively on the size distribution of particles comparable to and smaller than the wavelength of sunlight. Many different algorithms have been developed (see for example King et al. 1978 ) exploiting this dependence since the pioneering work of Ångström (1929) . Solar extinction spectra are measured routinely by

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