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Bin Wang and Xiaosu Xie

Pacific Ocean are two major regions where the intraseasonal convective anomalies intensify ( Wang and Rui 1990 ). This geographic preference for MJO development may be interpreted as a result of the contribution of atmosphere–ocean interaction to the MJO. The relatively slow response of the ocean mixed layer to wind anomalies favors amplification of planetary-scale waves. This provides a natural wave selection mechanism for the MJO. Note that the coupled CHFK mode of the warm pool system involves only

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Andrew Orr, Peter Bechtold, John Scinocca, Manfred Ern, and Marta Janiskova

1. Introduction The middle atmosphere is dominated by a westerly jet in the winter hemisphere, an easterly jet in the summer hemisphere, and a meridional circulation comprised of upwelling in the tropics and downwelling over the winter pole, referred to as the Brewer–Dobson circulation ( Brewer 1949 ). The Brewer–Dobson circulation is a mechanically driven circulation arising from midlatitude wintertime wave drag in the stratosphere associated primarily with the dissipation of planetary

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Robert D. Cess and Inna L. Vulis

necessaryto subdivide vegetated surfaces into a large number of categories, incorporate some appropriate means of sceneidentification, account for probable seasonal variations in surface albedo and surface anisotropy, and then devisea quantitative method for actually performing the conversions. It would be preferable to evaluate broadband quantities from broadband measurements. A further point ofthis paper, however, is that a commonly used linear conversion between broadband planetary and

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Yutian Wu, Richard Seager, Tiffany A. Shaw, Mingfang Ting, and Naomi Naik

propagating planetary-scale wave activity, changes the meridional/vertical phase structures, causes increased (decreased) poleward eddy momentum (heat) flux, and results in a net westerly forcing on the zonal mean flow ( Boville and Cheng 1988 ; Sassi et al. 2010 ). Sassi et al. (2010) compared the present-day simulations between the CAM3 and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model version 3 (WACCM3) (its vertical domain extends to 5.9 × 10 −6 mb) and found substantial differences in the zonal

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Xu Wang and Guang J. Zhang

(May–October) in 12 coupled GCMs participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) and showed that in general the models successfully captured the westward propagation of the QBWO. Are the significant subseasonal variability in variance and propagation features in summer properly simulated in GCMs? With this question in mind, we evaluate the simulation of the QBWO in early (MJ) and late (AS) boreal summer using the Community Atmosphere Model

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Seiji Kato and Fred G. Rose

1. Introduction The hydrological cycle and dynamics in the Earth system are driven by energy received from the sun. Once averaged over a year and over the entire globe, about 71% of the solar irradiance is absorbed by Earth (e.g., Stephens et al. 2012 ). While dynamics in the atmosphere and ocean distributes energy absorbed by Earth, energy is converted into different forms. A part of shortwave irradiance absorbed by ocean and land is used to evaporate water vapor. Water vapor enters the

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E. Manzini, M. A. Giorgetta, M. Esch, L. Kornblueh, and E. Roeckner

clear evidence, reported below, that on short time scales the polar vortex variability may be intrinsically generated within the atmosphere, or even the stratosphere itself. However, it still is an open question how much natural and anthropogenic external factors determine a particular history of variations of the stratospheric polar vortex on relatively long time scales, namely, from weeks to a season, on interannual and on decadal time scales. From interannual to interdecadal time scales, possible

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Donald R. Johnson and Akio Arakawa

AKIO ARAKAWADepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California(Manuscript received in final form 8 November 1996)ABSTRACTProfessor Yale Mintz's contributions in combining theory, diagnostic analysis, and modeling in scientific studiesacross a broad range of interests over morn than four decades are reviewed. His studies include diagnosticanalysis of the general circulation and modeling of atmospheric circulation, planetary atmospheres

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George Tselioudis, William B. Rossow, and David Rind

. Atmos., 51, 203-229.Hansen, J. E., and L. D. Travis, 1974: Light scattering in planetary atmospheres. Space Sci. Rev., 16, 527-610.J. Lemer, 1984: Climate sensitivity: Analysis of feedback mechanisms. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, Geophys.Monogr. Ser. LF, 29, J. E. Hansen and T. Takahashi, Eds., Amer.Geophys. Union, 130-163.L.e Treut, H., and Z.-X. Li, 199 1: Sensitivity of an atmospheric general circulation model to prescribed SST changes: Feedback effects associated with the

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Tomomichi Ogata and Shang-Ping Xie

the zonal momentum equation may be cast as where ( u , υ ) are seasonal deviations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind velocity from the annual mean denoted with the overbar, f is the Coriolis parameter, and ε is the linear drag coefficient. Over the equatorial Indian Ocean, are weak and will be set zero for simplicity here. For small ( u , υ ), the linear terms dominate to first order, at which Eq. (1) becomes On the equator, u 0 = 0. The next-order momentum equation is

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