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Maike Ahlgrimm, Richard M. Forbes, Jean-Jacques Morcrette, and Roel A. J. Neggers

Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation Network (SURFRAD) sites highlighted systematic model errors present under cloudy as well as clear conditions ( Chevallier and Morcrette 2000 ). Surface shortwave irradiance was overestimated, usually with the error linked primarily to cloudy conditions, while the surface downward longwave radiation was underestimated in clear as well as cloudy conditions. In addition, an increase in vertical resolution from 37 to 60 levels was planned for the IFS. The cost to run the

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D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and R. A. Ferrare

1. Introduction From the earliest days of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, measurements of water vapor profiles at high temporal and vertical resolution were deemed to be critical for both the radiative transfer and cloud processes studies that the ARM Program planned to undertake ( DOE 1990 ). The dream of the ARM Program founders was that ground-based remote sensors would measure these profiles routinely, and that the program would be able to move away from the routine

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare

contributions to atmospheric radiation transfer. With a complexity rivaling that of clouds, the characterization of local- to regional-scale aerosol properties would be a challenge to ARM and the larger community, requiring a sound scientific plan and experimental resources. Calling on those at the forefront of aerosol research, ARM formed the Aerosol Working Group (AWG) to develop research questions and recommend a suite of measurements that would allow for the characterization of relevant aerosol

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

grams per square meter. However, 95-GHz radar data alone do not give very accurate estimates of ice water content and IWP, since the radar reflectivity depends on the particle size distribution, which varies from cloud to cloud. The first non-limb-viewing spaceborne submillimeter measurement came from the NASA IceCube CubeSat (single channel at 883 GHz) launched in 2017; the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI), a multichannel conical scanner up to 664 GHz, is planned to launch on the EUMETSAT MetOp

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Ismail Gultepe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martin Gallagher, Luisa Ickes, and Darrel Baumgardner

this chapter to create a long range plan that would lay out the observational and theoretical studies that are needed to bridge the knowledge gaps in ice fog formation and evolution. In addition, because of the frequent labeling of diamond dust as ice fog, a consensus should be reached, if possible or necessary, as to what differentiates these two types of surface ice clouds. An extensive modeling effort, including large-eddy simulation (LES) models, is needed for better prediction of ice fog

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P. R. Field, R. P. Lawson, P. R. A. Brown, G. Lloyd, C. Westbrook, D. Moisseev, A. Miltenberger, A. Nenes, A. Blyth, T. Choularton, P. Connolly, J. Buehl, J. Crosier, Z. Cui, C. Dearden, P. DeMott, A. Flossmann, A. Heymsfield, Y. Huang, H. Kalesse, Z. A. Kanji, A. Korolev, A. Kirchgaessner, S. Lasher-Trapp, T. Leisner, G. McFarquhar, V. Phillips, J. Stith, and S. Sullivan

-7 shows an example of radar plan position indicator observations (left column) and ice crystal observed at the ground. While the reflectivity (top left) and differential reflectivity (middle left) do not indicate any strong signals, the differential phase shift (bottom right) exhibits a 0.2° km −1 signal between −3° and −5°C (the data surface slants upward from the radar located at 61.75°N, 25°E). Since the SIP process can lead to a mixture of ice particle types (e.g., graupel and splinters) it may

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Yukari N. Takayabu, George N. Kiladis, and Victor Magaña

invitation by Professor Yale Mintz to join the Department of Meteorology faculty at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), in 1969, where he remained for the rest of his career. Just 2 years after he moved to UCLA, Michio contributed “A review of recent studies of tropical meteorology relevant to the planning of GATE”( Yanai 1971a ) to the International Council for Science (ICSU)–World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Joint Organizing Committee (JOC) for Global Atmospheric Research Program

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E. J. Mlawer and D. D. Turner

was demonstrated during ICRCCM. The SPECTRE dataset, however, was from a single location and from a short duration campaign, a limitation that the ARM Program, which was developed based on the SPECTRE experience and science plan, was designed to overcome. A central objective of the ARM Program was to “relate observed radiative fluxes in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the atmospheric temperature, composition (specifically including water vapor and

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Pavlos Kollias, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Thomas P. Ackerman, Bruce A. Albrecht, Kevin B. Widener, Ken P. Moran, Edward P. Luke, Karen L. Johnson, Nitin Bharadwaj, James B. Mead, Mark A. Miller, Johannes Verlinde, Roger T. Marchand, and Gerald G. Mace

dealt with more elegantly. The KAZR features an improved radar receiver and a larger dynamic range for the signal powers within it; thus, its nominal saturation level is 15 dB higher than that of the MMCR (see Table 17-2 ). This is, of course, not enough. The current plan is to implement amplitude tapering on the transmitted pulse to reduce the return signal power. In addition, the ARM Program has strengthened its ability to profile precipitation by collocating 915-MHz radar wind profilers with the

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

that, in areas or times of strong gradients, they will overestimate the occurrence in regions where the true occurrence is nearly zero. In keeping with one of the themes of the interaction of research and forecasting, it is important to note that the primary motivation behind such work was to provide background information for forecasters and users who might want to make long-term plans or respond to forecasts. Although this article is associated with the 100-yr celebration of the American

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