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Gary T. Bates, Filippo Giorgi, and Steven W. Hostetler

MaY 1993 BATES ET AL. 1373Toward the Simulation of the Effects of the Great Lakes on Regional Climate GARY T. BATES AND FILIPPO GIORGINational Center for Atmospheric Research, * Boulder, Colorado STEVEN W. HOSTETLER U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, Colorado (Manuscript received 19 June 1992, in final form 31 October 1992) ABSTRACT

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Fred Moshary, and Michael Piasecki

. Since global mean air temperature increases have different effects at regional as compared to local spatial scales ( IPCC 2007 ), effects on lake surface area are specific to how global warming impacts characteristics of local water basins ( Wei et al. 2005 ; Croley and Lewis 2006 ; Yu and Shen 2010 ; Troin et al. 2010 ). Additional factors contributing to the lake growth are LCLU changes, most specifically deforestation and use of land and water agriculture, which affect the lake surface area in

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Changhai Liu, Kyoko Ikeda, Gregory Thompson, Roy Rasmussen, and Jimy Dudhia

believed that they are less important in the winter than in the summer due to the weak energy exchanges between the surface and overlying atmosphere, shallow PBLs, and weak solar heating. The present study focuses on the wintertime precipitation over the Colorado Headwaters region because of the effects of complex terrain, abundant snowfall amount, and its significance as a regional water resource. In addition, a relatively dense snow-telemetry network facilitates the verification of model results

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Samar Minallah and Allison L. Steiner

months are higher than what is observed ( Figs. 4d and 13b , respectively). Fig . 13. (top) African Great Lakes regional spatial patterns of total precipitation in the month of February (2001–18 averaged) for (a) ERA-Interim, (b) ERA5, and (c) CRU TS4.04. (bottom) Lake input parameters for ERA5 include (d) lake cover (fraction), (e) lake depth (m), and (f) lake cover–depth product. In (e) and (f), magnitudes extend beyond the shown scale. d. Effects of lake representation on precipitation patterns

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Pedro A. Jiménez, J. Fidel González-Rouco, Elena García-Bustamante, Jorge Navarro, Juan P. Montávez, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jimy Dudhia, and Antonio Muñoz-Roldan

representativeness errors and subsequently compare local versus regional evaluations. The regional series are obtained by averaging the wind at the sites within each region identified by JEA08 . The use of average regional series damps local effects in the observations as well as random representativeness errors in the simulation; thus, it provides a first framework to evaluate the numerical simulation performance. Wavelet analysis ( Foufoula-Georgiou and Kumar 1995 ; Torrence and Compo 1998 ) is used to

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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

applying an ideal conversion where dryland crop/pasture was converted into the urban class. We focused our analysis of urbanization effects on the surface and low-atmosphere conditions through regional numerical experiments during a July 1993 modeling period. This year, concurrent with the model actual land use distribution, is used as a representative baseline to provide a comparison with the proposed extreme LUC scenario, which resulted in a land use distribution similar to contemporary patterns

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Andrew D. Jones, William D. Collins, James Edmonds, Margaret S. Torn, Anthony Janetos, Katherine V. Calvin, Allison Thomson, Louise P. Chini, Jiafu Mao, Xiaoying Shi, Peter Thornton, George C. Hurtt, and Marshall Wise

biophysical climate effects of land-use change play an important role in determining the outcomes of climate policy at both global and regional scales. Thus, policies that do not consider these effects may result in unintended consequences. In general, the climate outcomes of achieving atmospheric GHG targets depend on the specific policy mechanisms employed insofar as those different mechanisms impact the pattern and scale of land-use change. In the context of the CMIP5 simulations, these findings

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Bing Pu, Edward K. Vizy, and Kerry H. Cook

) as CO 2 increases. Although none of the IPCC AR4 models predicts a complete shutdown of the AMOC by the end of the twenty-first century, the possibility cannot be excluded ( Meehl et al. 2007 ), so the consequences should be evaluated. Model simulations suggest that, while the climate responses to an AMOC shutdown are generally opposite to those forced by greenhouse gas warming, the two forcings may add nonlinearly and the total effects will be regionally dependent ( Vellinga and Wood 2008

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Francina Dominguez and Praveen Kumar

response to precipitation has a strong regional dependence. A clear example can be seen in Fig. 1 , which presents the correlation between daily summer precipitation and recycling ratio (left) and the June–August (JJA) soil moisture climatology (right). While the east and northwest present a strong negative correlation between precipitation and recycling ratio, the west presents a weaker positive correlation. When comparing both maps, there is a surprising similarity between the correlation map and

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Gabrielle Roesch-McNally, Michael Chang, Meghan Dalton, Scott Lowe, Charlie Luce, Christine May, Gary Morishima, Philip Mote, Alexander “Sascha” Petersen, and Emily York

Northwest regional chapter, in which innovative approaches led to a stronger assessment and to insights that may prove useful to the next NCA and other environmental assessments. Scientific assessments, such as NCA4, provide an opportunity to bring together subject-matter experts to produce syntheses that illustrate scientific consensus on the causes and consequences of global phenomena such as climate change ( Moss et al. 2019 ). One of the benefits of developing an assessment process is that it can

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