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James A. Lerczak, W. Rockwell Geyer, and David K. Ralston

1. Introduction Tidally averaged, physical conditions of an estuary—including the length of the salinity intrusion, the strength of stratification, and the strength and structure of the subtidal estuarine exchange circulation—are set by competing external forcing mechanisms. In many partially mixed estuaries, the dominant forcing mechanisms are buoyancy forcing by river discharge Q f and stirring and mixing due to tidal currents. For steady discharge and tidal amplitude, estuary length

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Paul J. Neiman, Lawrence J. Schick, F. Martin Ralph, Mimi Hughes, and Gary A. Wick

distribution is modulated to first order by orographic forcing, as moisture-laden, landfalling Pacific storms encounter the region’s steep terrain (e.g., Colle et al. 2000 ; Minder et al. 2008 ). Given the combination of rugged topography and heavy cool-season rains, the river basins here are prone to quick runoff typically evolving on time scales of a few hours to roughly two days. Despite the abundant snowpack at higher elevations, western Washington does not often experience spring-melt flooding, as

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V. Khan, L. Holko, K. Rubinstein, and M. Breiling

climatology and atmospheric studies. Evaluation of the information provided by reanalyses (e.g., on snow characteristics) may therefore be useful for various users. North-flowing Russian rivers are responsible for the bulk of freshwater supplied to the Arctic Ocean. The regime of freshwater inflow is an important component of coastal ocean dynamics. Recent studies demonstrated an increase of northern river runoff, especially in winter and spring seasons (e.g., Serreze et al. 2003 ; Yang et al. 2003

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Weifeng G. Zhang, John L. Wilkin, and Robert J. Chant

1. Introduction Freshwater discharged into the coastal ocean from rivers and runoff is often observed to be incorporated into a narrow coastal current that is typically a few internal Rossby radii wide and that rapidly transports freshwater downshelf, which appears similar to the classical model of buoyant outflow onto coastal oceans ( Garvine 1999 ). However, more recent theoretical, modeling, and laboratory studies ( Avicola and Huq 2003a ; Fong and Geyer 2002 ; Nof and Pichevin 2001

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Ruud Hurkmans, Peter A. Troch, Remko Uijlenhoet, Paul Torfs, and Matej Durcik

1. Introduction Recently, the Colorado River basin (CRB) experienced a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in the hydroclimatic record ( Cook et al. 2004 ). Because of the temperature rise associated with climate change, similar drought episodes are predicted to occur more often ( Seager et al. 2007 ). For water management operations in the basin, understanding and predictive capacity of terrestrial water storage (TWS) dynamics and its associated hydrologic fluxes is crucial ( Troch

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Pascal Matte, David A. Jay, and Edward D. Zaron

at periods of a few hours to a few days), quasi periodic (e.g., a diurnal sea breeze or annual river flow cycle), long term (periods of years to decades), or secular (without an apparent period within the length of the available tidal record). Also, morphological modifications leading to changes in bed friction, surface slope, and/or vegetation may all alter tidal properties ( Amin 1983 , 1985 ; Godin 1985 ; DiLorenzo et al. 1993 ; Horsburgh and Wilson 2007 ; Jay 2009 ; Jay et al. 2011

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Sonia Gámiz-Fortis, David Pozo-Vázquez, Ricardo M. Trigo, and Yolanda Castro-Díez

the extratropics ( Anderson et al. 1999 ). Seasonal and interannual streamflow variability plays an important role in the development and management of water resources in most regions of the world ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). The hydrological system acts as a sensible spatial and temporal integrator of precipitation (rain and snow), temperature, and related evapotranspiration over a specific region. Therefore, seasonal to interannual streamflow variability in many large river basins can be controlled

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Sonia Gámiz-Fortis, David Pozo-Vázquez, Ricardo M. Trigo, and Yolanda Castro-Díez

models in the northern extratropics. Streamflow reflects the influence of a certain number of parameters, namely, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and other hydrological cycle components, together with anthropogenic influences. The nature of the relationship between the climatic regimes over a river basin and its hydrological response, through its streamflow, presents different grades of complexity according to the physical characteristics of the basin. However, there are some objective reasons to

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Sebastian H. Mernild, Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Jacob C. Yde, and Gino Casassa

Bolivia (16°S; Soruco et al. 2015 ) have shown that glacier area shrinkage produced a reduction in river runoff. For the Patagonia Ice Fields, the maximum potential contribution to sea level rise is 14.7 ± 2.9 mm sea level equivalent ( Carrivick et al. 2016 ). Recent studies on the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields have highlighted post–Little Ice Age glacier area shrinkage on the order of 11%–14% for the period ~1870–2011 ( Davies and Glasser 2012 ; Falaschi et al. 2013 ; White and

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Irena Ott, Doris Duethmann, Joachim Liebert, Peter Berg, Hendrik Feldmann, Juergen Ihringer, Harald Kunstmann, Bruno Merz, Gerd Schaedler, and Sven Wagner

especially flood discharges is important for the adaptation of existing and planning for future flood management. Whereas larger river systems in Europe and Germany have been widely studied (e.g., Kleinn et al. 2005 ; Dankers and Feyen 2008 ; Hurkmans et al. 2010 ), there is still a lack of information on climate change impacts on smaller rivers. Smaller catchments require higher spatial resolution of the driving atmospheric models, and with decreasing spatial extent the uncertainty of any climate

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