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Véronique Lago, Susan E. Wijffels, Paul J. Durack, John A. Church, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, and Simon J. Marsland

1. Introduction Previous works have reported coherent patterns of multidecadal salinity changes within the oceans ( Freeland et al. 1997 ; Wong et al. 1999 , 2001 ; Dickson et al. 2002 ; Curry et al. 2003 ; Boyer et al. 2005 ; Johnson and Lyman 2007 ; Gordon and Giulivi 2008 ; Cravatte et al. 2009 ; Hosoda et al. 2009 ; Roemmich and Gilson 2009 ; von Schuckmann et al. 2009 ; Durack and Wijffels 2010 ; Helm et al. 2010 ; Kouketsu et al. 2010 ; Durack et al. 2013 ; Skliris et al

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A. K. Wåhlin and H. L. Johnson

the boundary current. Allowing the boundary current to exchange buoyancy directly with the atmosphere is crucial in marginal seas such as the Nordic seas, where the boundary current enters at the surface. The surface heat flux depends strongly on the sea surface temperature, whereas the salt flux arising from the freshwater input is much more weakly dependent on the surface salinity. As a consequence, salinity generally adjusts on a longer length scale than temperature. We examine the effect this

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Marcelo Dottori and Allan J. Clarke

also important? Although much of the California coast’s interannual sea level and SST seem to be remotely driven, the remote signal does not explain the low-frequency surface salinity since the latter is not well correlated with El Niño indices ( Schneider et al. 2005 ). Chelton et al. (1982) suggested that both anomalous alongshore and vertical advection of salt may contribute to the low-frequency variability of salinity. Applying the alongshore advection hypothesis, Schneider et al. (2005

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Florian Sévellec, Thierry Huck, Mahdi Ben Jelloul, Nicolas Grima, Jérôme Vialard, and Anthony Weaver

1. Introduction The ocean circulation is a slow component of the climate system and thus a major contributor to the system’s low-frequency variability. Moreover, global warming is likely to influence the oceans’ salinity distribution, and hence their dynamics, through the expected modification of the water cycle. Josey and Marsh (2005) have shown that an increase of the precipitation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre has modified the sea surface salinity since the mid-1970s. Modifications

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Jan-Erik Tesdal, Ryan P. Abernathey, Joaquim I. Goes, Arnold L. Gordon, and Thomas W. N. Haine

1. Introduction Changes in salinity affect buoyancy and density stratification in the northern North Atlantic, and numerous studies have exemplified the implications of this process for deep convection in the Labrador Sea ( Gelderloos et al. 2012 ; Böning et al. 2016 ; Yang et al. 2016 ), Irminger Sea ( Våge et al. 2011 ), and Greenland Sea ( Marshall and Schott 1999 ). Therefore, variability in salinity plays an important role in meridional overturning circulation and the global climate

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Takuya Hasegawa, Kentaro Ando, Iwao Ueki, Keisuke Mizuno, and Shigeki Hosoda

tropical Pacific as well as those for ENSO- and PDO-scale SST and OHC anomalies have been conducted using historical oceanic thermal data. In contrast to SST and OHC, upper-ocean salinity variability on the QD scale in the tropical Pacific has not been adequately investigated using observational data, mainly due to a lack of upper-ocean salinity observations. Some previous studies of sea surface salinity variations related to PDO and linear trend in the tropical Pacific used observational data

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, Simon A. Josey, Tong Lee, Arun Kumar, Caihong Wen, and Yan Xue

quantitative estimates of the global hydrological cycle, are regarded as a potentially useful tool to address the need (e.g., Trenberth et al. 2007 ; Bosilovich et al. 2011 ; Lorenz and Kunstmann 2012 ). From an oceanographic perspective, the E -minus- P (hereinafter E − P ) flux is a surface freshwater flux forcing of the ocean, which, together with ocean dynamics, drives the spatial and temporal changes of ocean salinity, influencing water mass formation and ocean circulation as well as mediating

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Laurent Terray, Lola Corre, Sophie Cravatte, Thierry Delcroix, Gilles Reverdin, and Aurélien Ribes

space and time variability. Present evidence for a changing tropical marine hydrological cycle must then be searched for elsewhere. It is now well established that surface ocean salinity provides nature’s largest possible rain gauge and can be efficiently used as an indicator of the changing marine water cycle ( Schmitt 2008 ). Large-scale salinity variations are mainly shaped by the evaporation minus precipitation patterns and oceanic circulation. While the former mechanism acts to create salinity

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W. C. Thacker

1. Introduction The Argo project ( Argo Science Team 1999 ) has increased the data coverage of the South Atlantic substantially ( Fig. 1 ). These data, when combined with those from conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) probes, are sufficient to provide an empirical basis for estimating salinity from measurements of temperature. Such estimates allow temperature-only expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data to characterize density and dynamics. As the Argo project continues and the coverage further

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Hengqian Yan, Ren Zhang, Gongjie Wang, Huizan Wang, Jian Chen, and Senliang Bao

1. Introduction Satellite observations have become essential tools to depict phenomena and features in the ocean. Almost all kinds of sea surface fields, including sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), sea surface ice, and chlorophyll concentration, have been mapped by the satellite platforms for a long time. Nevertheless, remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) was not realized until the launch of Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission in 2009 ( Font et al. 2010

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