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Barry B. Hinton, William S. Olson, David W. Martin, and Brian Auvine

from the thermocline, thus reducing vertical advection and entrainment (Godfrey and Lindstrom 1989; Miller 1976). Taftand Kessler (1987) and Cooper (1988) suggest in addition that in some regions of the oceans, horizontalgradients of density arising from salinity variations areas important in driving currents as are thermal variations. According to Jaeger ( 1976, 1983), large-scale rainfallwas first investigated by Loomis in 1882. Over theocean, Loomis's analysis was based on the frequencyof

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H. J. Morel-Seytoux and F. Saheli

al., 1965; Office of Saline Water, 1963;National Academy of Sciences, 1966). The watersituation is particularly critical in the Colorado RiverBasin. The Colorado River system is the largest in theUnited States that flows mainly through lands with achronic water deficiency for cultivation of crops(National Academy of Sciences, 1968). The averagespecific (or unit) yield of the Lower Colorado RiverBasin is only 0.3 inch, the lowest yield in the UnitedStates for a drainage area of this size

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Shabtai Cohen and Gerald Stanhill

's water economy. Although different methods of estimation were used, a comparisonof the recent estimates presented by Assouline (1993b)and Assouline and Mahrer (1993) with those fromNeumann's (1953a) earlier study (Table 1), providesindependent evidence for a reduction in evaporationfrom Lake Kinneret. The rate of evaporation from the Dead Sea is estimated to have decreased by 17% in the past 40 yearslargely due to its increased salinity resulting from the 5 [] [] 03

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Yingbin He, Dongmei Liu, Yanmin Yao, Qing Huang, Jianping Li, Youqi Chen, Shuqin Shi, Li Wan, Shikai Yu, and Deying Wang

system (see Table 1 ). Biophysical factors include four key aspects—climate, terrain, soil, and natural disaster rate. The climate indicator is composed of temperature, precipitation, and sunshine and is further discussed in section 2b(2) . The terrain indicator includes slope aspect and gradient. The soil indicator was developed based on soil pH, organic matter content, available phosphorus, available potassium, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, and topsoil salinity. The hazard rate is the frequency

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G. R. McGregor, M. Cox, Y. Cui, Z. Cui, M. K. Davey, R. F. Graham, and A. Brookshaw

vertical levels. GloSea uses a coastal tiling scheme, which allows the ocean model to have a coastline determined by the ocean grid rather than by the lower-resolution atmosphere grid, giving improved representation of land/sea geography. Initial ocean conditions for the GloSea hindcasts are obtained by forcing the ocean component with momentum, heat, and freshwater fluxes from the 40-yr ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-40), after first spinning up from climatological values of temperature and salinity ( Levitus

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J. A. Pena and C. L. Hosler

sea water. J. Iffet~or. Sod. Japan, 40, 25-38.Loucks, R. H., and J. W. Winchester, 1970: Some features of chlorine and bromine in aerosols. J. Gzophys. Res., 75, 2311-2315.Maclntyre, F., and J. W. Winchester, 1969: Phosphate ion en richment in drops from breaking bubbles. J. Phys. Chem, ?3, 2163-2169.Mason, B. 1966: Principles of Geovhemistry. New York, Wiley, 310 pp. Miyake, Y., 1948: The chemical nature of the saline matter in the ~* atmosphere. G~opkys. Mag., 16, 64-65.Sugawara, K

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Alan W. Gertler and Roger L. Steele

laser beam is approximately colinear withthe HeNe beam and has a total path length of 361 cm. The cloud water collector is removed through awindow on the chamber air parcel in the atmosphere with accompanyingcloud formation. The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) used toinitiate cloud formations in the chamber wereproduced by atomization of saline solutions thatwere introduced into the chamber after drying andpassing through a size discriminator (TSI 3071Electrostatic Classifier).2 The

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Jamie MacMahan, Ed Thornton, Jessica Koscinski, and Qing Wang

slightly form the wet bulb temperature ( Andreas 1995 ). The quantity T ev is a function of the salinity of the water droplet and relative humidity of the air. This exchange of sensible heat occurs in time τ T and is modeled based on microphysical equations of sea-spray evolution by Andreas (1989 , 1992 , 1995 ) where is defined as the time when the right-hand side of Eq. (6) reaches 1/ e , the e -folding scale. The value of is a function of droplet radius where small droplets transfer

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Steven M. Babin, George S. Young, and James A. Carton

critical refractivity gradient for ducting. Therefore, the best available equation for saturation vapor pressure should be used. The PJ model uses the equation of Kiefer (1941) to calculate saturation vapor pressure. Buck (1981) provides equations that are based on more recent experimental studies and therefore are probably more accurate. Also, the PJ model does not use the salinity correction suggested by Sverdrup et al. (1942) for the calculation of saturation water vapor pressure. Paulus (1984

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S. Tabata

investigators (Saur, 1963; Collins et al., 1975; James andFox, 1972; Walden, 1966) might have been influencedby bucket temperatures that were too low. One of the difficulties of making a proper assessmentof the reliability of either the bucket or the intaketemperatures by the comparison of the two, of course,has been the lack of good, reliable reference temperatures such as can be obtained from deep-sea reversingthermometers or the modern-day salinity-temperaturedepth recorder. In a few cases such

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