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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

a flat bottom that produced transports far in excess of observations for any reasonable value of bottom drag coefficients. Surprisingly both theories ignored Munk and Palmén’s (1951) work, which had identified topographic form drag (the pressure forces associated with obstacles) from ocean ridges and seamounts as a key mechanism to slow down the ACC and connect it to currents to the north. Development of a theory of the Southern Ocean circulation is taken up below. The ice-covered Arctic Sea 9

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W.-K. Tao, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Lang, S. Shige, W. Olson, A. Hou, G. Skofronick-Jackson, X. Jiang, C. Zhang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, M. Grecu, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, R. Houze, R. Kakar, K. Nakamura, S. Braun, S. Hagos, R. Oki, and A. Bhardwaj

-mean-square RRTM Rapid Radiative Transfer Model SCSMEX South China Sea Monsoon Experiment SESA Southern enhanced sounding array SGP Southern Great Plains SLH Spectral latent heating SPCZ South Pacific convergence zone SST Sea surface temperature TMI TRMM Microwave Imager TOGA COARE Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere–Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment TRAIN Trained radiometer TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TWP-ICE Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment WCRP World Climate Research

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

site in the Azores, and transects of the Meteor and Polarstern research vessels. Future field campaigns, for example, Arctic sea ice study or clouds in the Southern Ocean, could benefit strongly from an early stage joint planning phase. c. Collaboration topic 3: Improving the link between models and observations The operational use of LES at profiling sites as done in the KPT ( section 3c ) is highly promising to match the scales of observations and models and should be made transferable to

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Robert G. Ellingson, Robert D. Cess, and Gerald L. Potter

+2-K SST perturbation simulations that was close to 4 K, and different model sensitivities in turn resulted in different values for G . The perpetual July simulation eliminated another problem. This study focused solely on atmospheric feedback mechanisms, and inspection of output from all the models showed that climate feedback caused by changes in snow and ice coverage was suppressed through use of a fixed sea ice constraint and because the perpetual July simulations produced little snow cover

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

-resolution spectral imagers in both sun-synchronous and geostationary orbits; meteorological, aerosol, and ozone assimilation data; and snow/sea ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. While the TOA radiation budget is largely determined directly from accurate broadband CERES radiometer measurements, the surface radiation budget is derived indirectly through radiative transfer model calculations initialized using imager-based cloud and aerosol retrievals and meteorological assimilation data. To accurately

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

monograph. The scientific era of weather modification began in 1946 1 when Vincent Schaefer of the General Electric Company introduced dry ice into a cloud chamber containing a supercooled liquid cloud, immediately causing the cloud to glaciate ( Schaefer 1946 ). Within a month, his colleague Bernard Vonnegut discovered that silver iodide (AgI), a substance with a crystallographic structure closely resembling ice, also effectively glaciated supercooled clouds ( Vonnegut 1947 ). These discoveries

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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

, 1201 – 1221 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1994)075<1201:TARMPP>2.0.CO;2 . Stroeve , J. C. , V. Kattsov , A. Barrett , M. C. Serreze , T. Pavlova , M. Holland , and W. N. Meier , 2012 : Trends in Arctic sea ice extent from CMIP5, CMIP3, and observations . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39 , L16502 , doi: 10.1029/2012GL052676 . Tobin , D. C. , and Coauthors , 1999 : Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 µ m

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Ronald B. Smith

, the freezing level would be “below sea level” so all precipitation falls as snow. In tropical lands (e.g., Mt. Kilimanjaro, Kenya), only the highest elevations receive snow. Fig . 20-2. Mt. Cook in New Zealand (3764 m) with its snow line (or tree line) in summer. Clouds in the foreground indicate LCL properties. (Photo by Sigrid R-P Smith.) The in-cloud temperature influences precipitation in two ways. First, at subzero temperatures, the Bergeron ice-phase mechanism may accelerate the formation of

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

Project revealed the nature of the individual up- and downdrafts embedded in convective storms. The mesoscale characteristics of the convection observed in the Thunderstorm Project were harder to decipher because, unlike the tropical convection studied by Hamilton and Archbold, midlatitude convective processes were difficult to disentangle from other factors—especially frontal dynamics in Ohio and sea-breeze dynamics in Florida. Polar-front theory had dominated midlatitude meteorological thought since

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Kerry Emanuel

the Law of Storms , which built on earlier research by William Redfield and Lieutenant Colonel William Reid, laid out a strategy by which ships at sea could avoid or more safely ride out tropical cyclones (Piddington 1848 ). Observations were sparse, although by the late nineteenth century Father Benito Viñes, a Jesuit priest and director of Havana’s Belén Observatory, had established a rudimentary network of observations in the Caribbean Sea region and argued for the importance of upper

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