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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

continental Europe except not-plotted decrypted data per Lewis (1985 )], one from the Germans (no data over the British Isles), and one from a recent reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). All three showed a low in the North Sea, but the Allies had additional upstream observations and had earlier predicted that a gap would occur on 6 June with less cloud cover and wind. Even among the three Allied forecasting subteams (Met Office including Petterssen, Royal Navy

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

network”) appear but do not cover the range of common usage of the term in the meteorological literature. We use a definition of an atmospheric observing system: An instrument or group of instruments that can be used to generate a set of connected observational data. Thus, the definition is based upon the type of data that are generated. A scanning radar, although in some sense might be thought of as a stand-alone instrument, generates a set of measurements (e.g., reflectivity) connected in space

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

additional topics that are not covered in this series, because of lack of space and time as well as the fact that some are touched on in other chapters of this monograph. For instance, little attention is paid to hydrological, climatological, or social science applications because they are treated in other chapters of this monograph. 2. Applications in agriculture and food security a. Introduction Food is a basic human need. To feed increasing populations, global agricultural output has more than tripled

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

analysis and testing of the mechanisms for cyclogenesis, culminating in the discovery of baroclinic instability ( Charney 1947 ; Eady 1949 ). These reasons are why we refer to extratropical cyclones as the centerpiece of meteorology. Despite its immense utility as a conceptual model for routine synoptic analysis, polar-front theory was adopted slowly in the United States. The early development of the Norwegian cyclone model was covered extensively in Monthly Weather Review , which was published by

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

( Curry et al. 1996 ; Stamnes et al. 1999 ). The melting of snow and sea ice in the Arctic is influenced strongly by the amount of downwelling LW radiation at the surface, which depends primarily on cloud amount and microphysical properties. Determining the characteristics of Arctic clouds from satellite observations is difficult because the highly reflective surface makes it difficult to distinguish clouds from the surface with visible wavelengths, and the nearly constant presence of a surface

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Kazuyoshi Oouchi and Masaki Satoh

interpretation and conceptual model for it, which is followed by discussion and summary in section 7 . 2. Experimental design This study used NICAM ( Satoh et al. 2008 ; Tomita and Satoh 2004 ). The horizontal grid spacing was 14 km, which was fine enough to resolve CCs abundant in the tropics and the gross features of mesoscale convection ( Yamasaki 1984 ). The horizontal domain covered Earth, and the vertical domain, consisting of 40 layers, extended up into the upper stratosphere with its top at 40 km

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

distribution changed for experiments with doubled carbon dioxide. Despite their importance for Earth’s climate, large uncertainties remain in the representation of mixed-phase clouds in global climate models (e.g., McCoy et al. 2016 ). This is problematic because, among others, Gregory and Morris (1996) and Li and Le Treut (1992) showed that modeled fields of important cloud properties such as cloud cover, cloud water content, cloud albedo, outgoing terrestrial (longwave) radiation, and the

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Raymond McCord and Jimmy Voyles

conditions such as instrument degradation and contamination and temporary operating conditions (power failures, frozen or snow covered sensors, etc.). The quality impacts from these events are defined for a specific time range, list of data products, and specific measurements. DQRs are typically submitted by either the instrument mentor [see Cress and Sisterson (2016 , chapter 5) for a description] or the Data Quality Office ( Peppler et al. 2016 , chapter 12). DQRs are now provided as “companion

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

used what we now call the quasi-static approximation. To obtain approximate solutions of the differential equations of the model, he proposed a method based on finite differences, a technique that he had devised and previously applied to stresses in a masonry dam ( Richardson 1911 ). He discretized his domain on a longitude–latitude grid or “lattice” that covered part of western Europe, with five layers to represent the atmosphere’s vertical structure. He understood that a staggered arrangement of

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Akio Arakawa, Joon-Hee Jung, and Chien-Ming Wu

. 16-5. Two routes for unifying the low-resolution and high-resolution models. See text for further explanations. From Arakawa and Wu (2013) . 3. Route I: Unified parameterization a. Identification of the problem The first step to open ROUTE I is reexamination of the widely used assumption that convective updrafts cover only a small fraction of the area represented by a GCM grid cell. Most conventional cumulus parameterizations assume this, at least implicitly, regarding the predicted

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