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Chunzai Wang and Liping Zhang

. 2001 ; Rowell 2003 ; Wang et al. 2012 ), the Atlantic warm pool ( Wang et al. 2008 ; Zhang et al. 2012 ; Wang et al. 2013 ) and Atlantic hurricanes ( Goldenberg et al. 2001 ; Wang and Lee 2009 ), and North American and European summer climate ( Enfield et al. 2001 ; McCabe et al. 2004 ; Sutton and Hodson 2005 ). In spite of its importance, the mechanism of the AMO is still unclear. One of the most popular arguments is that the AMO is induced by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

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Caihong Wen, Arun Kumar, Yan Xue, and M. J. McPhaden

epochal) variations in mean thermocline in the past decade could have played an important role in altering the characteristics of ENSO. Such a possibility has been raised by analysis demonstrating that changes in the east–west gradient of the equatorial thermocline may govern different characteristic of ENSO ( Fedorov and Philander 2000 ; Hu et al. 2013 ). If this is the case, what changes in mean circulation are associated with such epochal changes? Other than the equatorial processes, for example

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Ian D. Lloyd and Gabriel A. Vecchi

(see Fig. 12 ), with warming over the Indo-Pacific warm pool, increased Walker circulation, and increased anomalous westerly surface winds over the Indian Ocean thermocline ridge. Two mechanisms could be responsible for a shallower thermocline in the TRI. First, enhanced cyclonic wind stress curl in the southeastern Indian Ocean could lead to upwelling Rossby waves, which emerge within the proximity of the TRI after several months ( Xie et al. 2002 ). Second, enhanced Walker circulation over the

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Michael A. Alexander, Hyodae Seo, Shang Ping Xie, and James D. Scott

1. Introduction The ocean temperatures and circulation in the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean (NETP), taken here to be 5°–18°N, 110°W to the American coast, are complex and influenced by many factors. The topography of Central America strongly affects the regional atmospheric circulation and underlying ocean in the NETP. Three major gaps in the ~1-km-high Sierra Madre, located at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, at the Nicaragua–Costa Rica border, and in central Panama, funnel low-level jets

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Hiroaki Tatebe, Yukiko Imada, Masato Mori, Masahide Kimoto, and Hiroyasu Hasumi

– 1160 . Tatebe , H. , and H. Hasumi , 2010 : Formation mechanism of the Pacific equatorial thermocline revealed by a general circulation model with a high accuracy tracer advection scheme . Ocean Modell. , 35 , 245 – 252 . Timmermann , A. , and F.-F. Jin , 2002 : A nonlinear mechanism for decadal El Niño amplitude changes . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 ( 1) , doi:10.1029/2001GL013369 . Tourre , Y. M. , B. Rajagopalan , Y. Kushnir , M. Barlow , and W. B. Whilte , 2001

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Zhengyu Liu, Yun Liu, Lixin Wu, and R. Jacob

, 2004 : Atmospheric response to North Pacific SST: The role of ocean–atmosphere coupling. J. Climate , 17 , 1859 – 1882 . Liu , Z. , M. Notaro , J. Kutzbach , and N. Liu , 2006 : Assessing global vegetation–climate feedbacks from the observations. J. Climate , 19 , 787 – 814 . Miller , A. J. , D. R. Cayan , and W. B. White , 1998 : A westward-intensified decadal change in the North Pacific thermocline and gyre-scale circulation. J. Climate , 11 , 3112 – 3127 . Peng

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Yan Xue, Magdalena A. Balmaseda, Tim Boyer, Nicolas Ferry, Simon Good, Ichiro Ishikawa, Arun Kumar, Michele Rienecker, Anthony J. Rosati, and Yonghong Yin

Pacific is found to be associated with decadal variability of SST, for example, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ), and ecosystem indicators along the west coast of North America ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 ). HC variability in the North Atlantic has been linked to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) ( Hakkinen and Rhines 2004 ; Böning et al. 2006 ; Huang et al. 2011 ) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) ( Zhang 2008 ). Therefore

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Charlène Feucher, Guillaume Maze, and Herlé Mercier

-do/dti-mut/02-084, 85 pp. Cessi, P. , 2007 : Regimes of thermocline scaling: The interaction of wind stress and surface buoyancy . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37 , 2009 – 2021 , doi: 10.1175/JPO3103.1 . Daniault, N. , Mazé J. , and Arhan M. , 1994 : Circulation and mixing of Mediterranean water west of the Iberian Peninsula . Deep-Sea Res. I , 41 , 1685 – 1714 , doi: 10.1016/0967-0637(94)90068-X . De Boyer Montégut, C. , Madec G. , Fischer A. S. , Lazar A. , and Iudicone D. , 2004

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Rachael D. Mueller, William D. Smyth, and Barry Ruddick

. Chassignet , 2006 : Parameterization of gravity current entrainment for ocean circulation models using a high-order 3D nonhydrostatic spectral element model. Ocean Modell. , 14 , 19 – 44 . Fig . 1. (a) Depth-integrated kinetic energy, (b) kinetic energy growth rate, (26) , (c) kinetic energy budget, and (d) contributions to energy dissipation, (25) . Changes in the kinetic energy and energy budget show four stages of interleaving growth, as outlined above (a). In (b), the energy growth rate

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Wei Liu and Zhengyu Liu

1. Introduction The interaction between the freshwater cycle and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has been discussed for many years (e.g., Stommel 1961 ; Bryan 1986 ; Rahmstorf et al. 2005 ; Manabe and Stouffer 1988 ). Recent work has suggested that the key determination of the stability of the AMOC to changes in the freshwater flux depends on whether the AMOC salinifies or freshens the Atlantic ( Rahmstorf 1996 ). A diagnostic indicator, initially the AMOC freshwater

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