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Peter K. Snyder

land-cover changes inducing teleconnection behavior nor discussion of climate model representation of these teleconnection processes. Tropical landmasses are a large source of energy for the atmosphere and the general circulation is responsible for transporting this energy poleward to maintain the global radiation balance. Consequently, the tropics have a direct influence on the extratropical climate, and any changes to the tropical energy balance and the poleward atmospheric transport

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Duane E. Stevens, Hung-Chi Kuo, Wayne H. Schubert, and Paul E. Ciesielski

for diagnostic analysis and forinvestigating the slow evolution of the large-scale flow in the tropics.1. Introduction Quasi-geostrophic theory provides a dynamicalframework for understanding the slowly evolving, meteorologically significant large-scale phenomena inmiddle latitudes. Within this approximation the fastergravity waves are filtered out by neglect of the divergentcomponent of the horizontal flow, which is typicallysmaller than the rotational component by a factor ofthe Rossby number

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JUNE 1958 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW 201ANALYSIS AIDS FOR THE AMERICAN TROPICSL. F. HUBERTU. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.[Manuscript received February 12, 1958; revised April 14, 19581ABSTRACTAnalysis of upper-level charts for the American Tropics, which is a largely ocearic area, is difficult becausedata are inadequate and are likely to remain so in the foreseeable future. Despite tbis handicap and the unsatis-factory character of the map, the 500-mb. analyses are routinely used for many

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Shafiqul Islam, Rafael L. Bras, and Kerry A. Emanuel

FEBRU^RV 1993 ISLAM ET AL. 297Predictability of Mesoscale Rainfall in the Tropics SHAFIQUL ISLAM *Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio RAFAEL L. BRASRalph M. Parsons Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts KERRY A. EMANUELDepartment of Earth, Atmosphere, and Planetary

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N. R. P. Harris, L. J. Carpenter, J. D. Lee, G. Vaughan, M. T. Filus, R. L. Jones, B. OuYang, J. A. Pyle, A. D. Robinson, S. J. Andrews, A. C. Lewis, J. Minaeian, A. Vaughan, J. R. Dorsey, M. W. Gallagher, M. Le Breton, R. Newton, C. J. Percival, H. M. A. Ricketts, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, G. J. Nott, A. Wellpott, M. J. Ashfold, J. Flemming, R. Butler, P. I. Palmer, P. H. Kaye, C. Stopford, C. Chemel, H. Boesch, N. Humpage, A. Vick, A. R. MacKenzie, R. Hyde, P. Angelov, E. Meneguz, and A. J. Manning

such as the degree to which the locations of the emissions coincide with strong convection can also have a strong influence on the overall flux ( Russo et al. 2015 ). To address these issues, the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 atmospheric research aircraft was deployed in Guam in January and February 2014 as part of the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign, a large multi-institutional project funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research

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Gui-Ying Yang and Julia Slingo

/early evening over land. However, some studies also showed an afternoon maximum in precipitation and cloudiness over the oceans (e.g., McGarry and Reed 1978 ; Augustine 1984 ; Shin et al. 1990 ). Janowiak et al. (1994) provided an extensive analysis of the diurnal cycle of cold clouds in the global tropics based on 3-hourly geostationary satellite data that had been averaged on to a 2.5° latitude–longitude grid. Their results confirmed the existence of an early morning maximum in the extent of the

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Stefan N. Tulich and George N. Kiladis

( Mapes et al. 2003 ). At higher latitudes, Carbone et al. (2002) documented diurnal eastward-moving envelopes of precipitation over the United States in summer, although the role of advection versus wave processes is not as clear in that setting. Fourier spectral methods have proven useful for identifying and classifying zonally propagating cloud disturbances in the tropics. For example, it is now clear on the basis of spectral filtering that many eastward-moving “superclusters” of convection (e

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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

1. Introduction To the first order, the atmospheric general circulation redistributes energy and balances the horizontal and vertical gradients of diabatic heating. Since the earth’s atmosphere is primarily heated from the surface, convective processes are required to maintain the troposphere close to neutral stratification. On the large scale, the heating gradient between the tropics and extratropics is balanced by the poleward transport of the heat of the general circulation. However, the

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Shira Rubin, Baruch Ziv, and Nathan Paldor

1. Introduction This paper describes the features of tropical plumes (TPs) that extend from the Tropics poleward and eastward, over the eastern part of North Africa to the eastern Mediterranean. McGuirk et al. (1987 , 1988 ) were the first to present an objective definition of a TP: “continuous cloud band, at least 2000 km in length, crossing 15°N” and also coined the term “tropical plume.” The intersection of the TP with the ITCZ is usually called the “origin point” ( McGuirk et al. 1987

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Stefan N. Tulich and Brian E. Mapes

. E. Yuter , C. S. Bretherton , and G. N. Kiladis , 2004 : Large-scale meteorology and deep convection during TRMM KWAJEX. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 422 – 444 . Teixeira , J. , and C. A. Reynolds , 2008 : Stochastic nature of physical parameterizations in ensemble prediction: A stochastic convection approach. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 483 – 496 . Tulich , S. N. , and B. E. Mapes , 2008 : Multiscale convective wave disturbances in the tropics: Insights from a two

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