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Damien Irving, Will Hobbs, John Church, and Jan Zika

initialization of the coupled ocean–atmosphere system ( Sen Gupta et al. 2013 ). In addition to incomplete model spinup, drift is also caused by spurious mass or energy “leakage” into or out of the simulated climate system. This nonclosure of the global mass and energy budgets arises due to small inconsistencies in the model treatment of energy ( Lucarini and Ragone 2011 ; Hobbs et al. 2016 ) and/or water ( Liepert and Previdi 2012 ; Liepert and Lo 2013 ). In relation to the global energy budget, an

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Gianpaolo Balsamo, Anton Beljaars, Klaus Scipal, Pedro Viterbo, Bart van den Hurk, Martin Hirschi, and Alan K. Betts

deficiencies, either in the land surface scheme or in the surface fluxes. This limits the validity for quantitative estimates. Seneviratne et al. (2004) and Hirschi et al. (2006a) bypassed the strong dependence on the land surface model formulation used in the reanalysis system by considering the water budget of large basins using both atmospheric moisture convergence fields derived from reanalysis and observed river discharge. Water balance closure can thus be calculated without the use of atmospheric

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Sarah G. Purkey and Gregory C. Johnson

potential isotherms (heave). Heave reflects changes in AABW volume, related to changes in the formation rate, circulation, or perhaps even formation properties of AABW. A shift in the θ– S curve indicates a change in water-mass properties. Decomposing the observed deep changes into these components allows for evaluation of the relative contributions of these changes to local sea level rise (SLR), freshwater, and heat budgets. AABW is a combination of very cold and relatively fresh water formed on

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

combination of open water, bare soil, and canopy surface evaporation and transpiration. Theoretically, ET represents a turbulent flux of water vapor from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere resulting from the phase change of liquid water. This phase change means that ET is coupled to the surface energy balance via the latent heat of vaporization, and therefore the transfer of energy from the surface to the atmosphere due to evapotranspiration is also referred to as the latent heat flux. If the phase change

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Wen-Ying Wu, Zong-Liang Yang, and Michael Barlage

below a 2-m soil column. The groundwater storage budget is expressed as the water balance, (A1) d W d t = Q − R sb , where W is the groundwater storage, Q is the groundwater recharge, and R sb is the subsurface runoff or the discharge from the aquifer. The groundwater recharge Q is based on Darcy’s law: (A2) Q = − K − z ∇ − ( f mic φ bot − z bot ) z ∇ − z bot , where K is the hydraulic conductivity of the bottom soil layer, f mic is the fraction of micropore content in the bottom soil

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Kirsten L. Findell, Patrick W. Keys, Ruud J. van der Ent, Benjamin R. Lintner, Alexis Berg, and John P. Krasting

meridional wind speeds and specific humidity. These data are used to solve the water balance of tagged moisture (subscript g ) in an upper and lower layer, S g ,upper and S g ,lower , where S is moisture in the atmospheric column. These calculations do not influence the total water balance. In forward tracking mode the water balance of tagged moisture in the lower layer is given by ∂ S g , lower ∂ t = − ∂ ( S g , lower u ) ∂ x − ∂ ( S g , lower υ ) ∂ y + E g − P g ± F υ , g , where F υ is

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Kyle S. Mattingly, Thomas L. Mote, Xavier Fettweis, Dirk van As, Kristof Van Tricht, Stef Lhermitte, Claire Pettersen, and Robert S. Fausto

discharge and through a reduced surface mass balance (SMB), when increases in surface ablation exceed those in snow accumulation and meltwater refreezing. SMB-related losses were responsible for a greater proportion of total mass loss than ice dynamical processes during the recent GrIS mass loss acceleration ( van den Broeke et al. 2017 ; Mouginot et al. 2019 ), and model projections indicate that SMB will play the dominant role in future GrIS mass losses ( Calov et al. 2018 ; Rückamp et al. 2018

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Ryan C. Scott, Dan Lubin, Andrew M. Vogelmann, and Seiji Kato

1. Introduction and motivation Antarctica contains the largest reservoir of ice on Earth. Clouds modulate this reservoir by linking poleward energy and water vapor transport to precipitation and by perturbing the energy budget governing the melting and sublimation of snow and ice. By altering the net surface radiative flux, clouds have the ability to alter the onset, extent, intensity, and duration of surface melting and subsequent refreezing, thereby exerting an essential control on meltwater

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Pascal Marquet

. Riehl , H. , and J. S. Malkus , 1958 : On the heat balance in the equatorial trough zone . Geophysica , 6 , 503 – 538 . Romps , D. M. , 2008 : The dry-entropy budget of a moist atmosphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 3779 – 3799 , doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2679.1 . Romps , D. M. , 2015 : MSE minus CAPE is the true conserved variable for an adiabatically lifted parcel . J. Atmos. Sci. , 72 , 3639 – 3646 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-15-0054.1 . Romps , D. M. , and Z. Kuang , 2010 : Do

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Max Popp, Hauke Schmidt, and Jochem Marotzke

about detrained water to the cloud-microphysical scheme, cloud condensate is created or destroyed by the cloud microphysical scheme only. 3) Convection ECHAM6 uses a mass flux scheme for cumulus convection ( Tiedtke 1989 ), with modifications for penetrative convection according to Nordeng (1994) . The contribution of cumulus convection to the large-scale budgets of heat, moisture, and momentum is represented by an ensemble of clouds consisting of updrafts and downdrafts in a steady state

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