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Shuanggen Jin, Z. Li, and J. Cho

1. Introduction Atmospheric water vapor is a variable that interacts with the solar radiation and controls the thermodynamics and energy balance of the atmosphere. Therefore, water vapor plays a key role in the global hydrologic cycle and heat processes of the climate system. Integrated or precipitable water vapor (PWV) is an important indicator of water vapor variability in the lower troposphere and related climate processes. It represents the water vapor storage in the column of the

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Amin R. Nehrir, Kevin S. Repasky, and John L. Carlsten

1. Introduction Water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere ( Trenberth et al. 2007 ). The radiative forcing for a clear sky due to water vapor is 75 W m −2 , while for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) it is a factor of 2 weaker at 32 W m −2 ( Kiehl and Trenberth 1997 ). The sensitivity of radiative forcing due to a change in water vapor–CO 2 concentrations in the equatorial regions is small due to the already large greenhouse effect and therefore has a small direct impact on the

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Sibylle Vey, Reinhard Dietrich, Axel Rülke, Mathias Fritsche, Peter Steigenberger, and Markus Rothacher

1. Introduction Atmospheric water vapor significantly influences many processes of the earth’s weather and climate. Water vapor is one of the main variables controlling the greenhouse effect and it plays a crucial role in the global energy cycle. Accurate knowledge of the water vapor distribution in the atmosphere and its change with time is indispensable for the description and understanding of global climate processes. In contrast to other greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide or methane

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Neil F. Tandon, Lorenzo M. Polvani, and Sean M. Davis

stratospheric water vapor changes on the tropospheric circulation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L09806 , doi:10.1029/2006GL025983 . Lorenz , D. J. , and E. T. DeWeaver , 2007 : Tropopause height and zonal wind response to global warming in the IPCC scenario integrations . J. Geophys. Res. , 112 , D10119 , doi:10.1029/2006JD008087 . Maycock , A. C. , K. P. Shine , and M. M. Joshi , 2011 : The temperature response to stratospheric water vapour changes . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc

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Alia Iassamen, Henri Sauvageot, Nicolas Jeannin, and Soltane Ameur

. Whiteman , B. M. Lesht , F. J. Schmidlin , and F. Russo , 2006 : Absolute accuracy of water vapor measurements from six operational radiosonde types launched during AWEX-G, and implications for AIRS validation. J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , D09S10 . doi:10.1029/2005JD006083 . Murphy , D. M. , and T. Koop , 2005 : Review of the vapour pressures of ice and supercooled water for atmospheric applications. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 131 , 1539 – 1565 . Peixoto , J. P. , A. H

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Catherine Prigent, Juan R. Pardo, and William B. Rossow

1. Introduction Operational meteorological satellites in polar orbits make microwave measurements in the O 2 band around 60 GHz and in the H 2 O line at 183.31 GHz for atmospheric temperature and water vapor sounding, respectively. These measurements complement infrared (IR) observations that are generally limited to cloud-free areas. For nowcasting and observations of severe weather, higher satellite orbits are suggested to provide the required revisit times. The problem is that adequate

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Luiz F. Sapucci, Luiz A. T. Machado, João F. G. Monico, and Artemio Plana-Fattori

1. Introduction Atmospheric water vapor plays a crucial role in the atmospheric processes, and its distribution is associated with cloud concentration and rainfall. Water vapor advection and the release of latent heat influence the vertical stability and the structure and evolution of atmospheric storm systems. This atmospheric component has the greatest temporal and spatial variability, and is capable of fluctuating by several orders of magnitude in both location and height in a short period

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Luiz F. Sapucci

GPS network . J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. , 63 , 1295 – 1304 . Emardson , T. R. , 1998 : Studies of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Tech. Rep. 339, Charmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 29 pp . Emardson , T. R. , and H. J. P. Derks , 2000 : On the relation between the wet delay and the integrated precipitable water vapour in the European atmosphere . Meteor. Appl. , 7 , 61 – 68 , doi:10.1017/S

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Joseph Galewsky and Kimberly Samuels-Crow

question revolves around the processes that transport moist air to the southern South American Altiplano during the austral summer. Paleoclimate indicators show that the subtropical Andes were likely moister in the past, even sustaining glaciers at sites that are far too dry to support glaciers in the modern climate ( Kull and Grosjean 2000 ; Ammann et al. 2001 ). The water vapor transport processes that supported the development of glaciers in the past, and how those processes may change as the

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Barrett L. Smith, Sandra E. Yuter, Paul J. Neiman, and D. E. Kingsmill

California Landfalling Jets Experiment (CALJET) and the Pacific Landfalling Jets Experiment (PACJET; Ralph et al. 1999 ; Neiman et al. 2002 , 2005 ) investigated the prefrontal low-level jet (LLJ) associated with Pacific storm systems. The LLJ, which forms in response to restoring thermal wind balance, can lead to extreme flooding when it transports water vapor toward a mountain range ( Buzzi et al. 1998 ; Doswell et al. 1998 ; Lin et al. 2001 ; Rotunno and Ferretti 2001 ; White et al. 2003

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