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Dong Wang and Tobias Kukulka

1. Introduction Langmuir turbulence (LT) is an important turbulent process in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL), which is driven by the Craik–Leibovich (CL) vortex force due to the wave–current interaction ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ). The structure of LT features coherent vortex pairs, which generates strong surface convergent regions and downwelling jets that significantly enhance vertical mixing ( Thorpe 2004 ; Weller and Price 1988 ; Farmer and Li 1995 ). Previous studies have used

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Hidenori Aiki and Richard J. Greatbatch

1. Introduction In the theory for surface gravity waves, the Lagrangian mean transport by the Stokes drift has been known for more than 150 years ( Stokes 1847 ) whereas it is only in relatively recent times that the importance of Lagrangian transport by ocean mesoscale eddies has been appreciated. In both cases, the Stokes or eddy-induced velocities are corrections to an Eulerian mean (EM) velocity to account for the difference between Eulerian and Lagrangian mean motions. In the theory of

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Maria Paola Clarizia and Christopher S. Ruf

cm or greater ( Chen-Zhang et al. 2016 ). As a result, there is greater sensitivity of GNSS-R measurements to ocean swell or other, longer, wavelengths that are not directly forced by the local winds and that are often characterized through the significant wave height (SWH) ( Germain et al. 2004 ; Clarizia et al. 2009 ; Marchan-Hernandez et al. 2010 ; Zavorotny et al. 2014 ). This sensitivity can be problematic for the retrieval of wind speed, since a component of the variance in the

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Jan Erik H. Weber, Göran Broström, and Øyvind Saetra

1. Introduction It is a well-known fact that surface waves carry mean momentum ( Stokes 1847 ). For monochromatic waves in a viscous nonrotating fluid, the pioneering paper on this subject is Longuet-Higgins (1953) . He applied an Eulerian fluid description with curvilinear coordinates to solve this problem. For a direct Lagrangian approach to wave drift in a rotating ocean, earlier treatments are found in Chang (1969) , Ünlüata and Mei (1970) , and Weber (1983) . Also, the generalized

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Jerome A. Smith and Coralie Brulefert

–floating instrument platform (R/P FLIP ), in conjunction with the near-field leg of the Hawaiian Ocean-Mixing Experiment (HOME-NF). The R/P FLIP was moored over the Kaena Ridge just off Oahu, Hawaii, where the water depth is about 1000 m, increasing to well over 4000 m off either side of the ridge (see Fig. 1 ). In addition to the LRPADS data, many other measurements were made from R/P FLIP . These include wind, surface wave elevation spectra, and conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD; with which

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Irena Vaňková and David M. Holland

1. Introduction Calving-generated ocean waves are tsunami-like waves, which have the potential to cause sudden and large mixing events and affect melt rates at the glacier ocean interface. Furthermore, waves generated at the open ocean have been hypothesized to have an influence on calving. Tides or other long-period nontidal components of sea level (i.e., surges) put the glacier out of buoyant equilibrium and increase stresses, both of which can trigger calving. Bending forces due to

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R. Pinkel, M. A. Goldin, J. A. Smith, O. M. Sun, A. A. Aja, M. N. Bui, and T. Hughen

1. Introduction The Wirewalker (WW) is a vertically profiling instrument package propelled by ocean waves. In its simplest form, it is a means of attaching any internally recording instrument to a wire suspended from the sea surface. The WW’s profiling extends the one-dimensional time series recording of the instrument to a two-dimensional depth–time record. The elements of the WW system include a surface buoy, a wire suspended from the buoy, a weight at the end of the wire, and the profiler

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Adrian H. Callaghan

1. Introduction Wind-driven breaking waves are ubiquitous throughout the global oceans and seas and occur in a variety of forms in all but the calmest of sea states. Wave breaking limits the height of individual waves, generates turbulence that helps mix the upper ocean, entrains air that drives bubble-mediated ocean–atmosphere exchange processes, and generates extreme surface flows ( Melville 1996 ). Predicting and measuring the occurrence, severity, and scale of breaking waves remain active

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Paul A. Hwang and Edward J. Walsh

1. Introduction National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hurricane reconnaissance and research missions combined active and passive microwave sensors to obtain simultaneous wind and wave measurements inside hurricanes ( Wright et al. 2001 ; Walsh et al. 2002 ; Moon et al. 2003 ; Black et al. 2007 ; Fan et al. 2009b ). For surface wave measurements, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft carried an airborne scanning radar altimeter (SRA) to obtain the 3D ocean surface topography, from which

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Eric Danioux, Patrice Klein, Matthew W. Hecht, Nobumasa Komori, Guillaume Roullet, and Sylvie Le Gentil

1. Introduction Strong near-inertial waves (NIWs) (with frequency close to the Coriolis frequency f ) are observed in all realistic global or basin-scale ocean models forced by winds that possess energy in the f band. These models further reveal—particularly at midlatitudes where mesoscale oceanic eddies are ubiquitous—a maximum of near-inertial vertical velocity below 2000 m with O (100 km) scales, a frequency peak at f , and a secondary 2 f frequency peak ( Furuichi et al. 2008 ; Hecht

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