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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

this time, the trough was already cut off from the main synoptic wave and continued advancing southward over Algeria, where it remained nearly stationary on 12 and 13 September ( Fig. 2a ). Fig . 2. ECMWF analyses valid at 1200 UTC 12 Sep 2019 of (a) geopotential (m 2 s −2 ; solid line), temperature (°C; dashed line) at 500 hPa, and 250-hPa potential vorticity (PVU; shaded) and (b) sea level pressure (hPa; solid line) and temperature (°C; dashed line) at 850 hPa. At low levels, the situation on 10

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

(red line) and melting layer based on radar reflectivity in an atmospheric column, modified after Mizukami et al. (2013) . The on-the-ground rain–snow-transition elevation can be inferred from remotely sensed observations of atmospheric snow level (i.e., the atmospheric elevation at which snow becomes the dominant form of precipitation). Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars ( Johnston et al. 2009 , 2017 ) can estimate the snow level above their locations by identifying the elevation

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Mary M. Forrester and Reed M. Maxwell

topographic slope component ( Maxwell et al. 2016 ). The van Genuchten (1980) equations used for hydraulic relationships are given in terms of hydraulic head h as (6) S w ⁡ ( h ) = s sat − s res [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) n ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) + s res , (7) k r ⁡ ( h ) = { 1 − ⁡ ( α h ) n − 1 [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) n ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) } [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) β ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) / 2 . ParFlow also applies the two-dimensional kinematic wave equation as an overland flow boundary condition, and Manning’s equation establishes flow depth

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Yanan Duan and Sanjiv Kumar

moisture observations, also called the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive; Entekhabi et al. 2014 ), makes it possible to evaluate model-simulated soil moisture within a large domain. We investigate streamflow predictability using a state-of-the-art National Water Model’s (NWM) streamflow forecasting system that has become operational in 2016 ( https://water.noaa.gov/about/nwm ). The NWM is an unprecedented effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to provide high

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Xuejin Wang, Baoqing Zhang, Feng Li, Xiang Li, Xuliang Li, Yibo Wang, Rui Shao, Jie Tian, and Chansheng He

Ocean monsoon and westerlies. However, the Indian Ocean monsoon only contributes to the summer precipitation of regions 1 and 2. From Fig. S5 , we can see that water vapor is transported from the west to the east in the APENC, however, the water vapor is mostly not converted into precipitation during the transportation process; the evaporated water is transported from regions 1 and 2 into 3 or 4. Figure 11 illustrates the regional moisture cycle. All components were standardized by dividing by the

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Klaus Vormoor and Thomas Skaugen

: Estimating the time dependence of air temperature using daily maxima and minima: A comparison of three methods . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 5 , 736 – 742 . Bárdossy, A. , 1998 : Generating precipitation time series using simulated annealing . Water Resour. Res. , 34 , 1737 – 1744 . Beldring, S. , 2003 : Estimation of parameters in a distributed precipitation-runoff model for Norway . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 7 , 304 – 316 . Bergström, S. , 1995 : The HBV model. Computer Models of

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Rui Wang, Xin Yan, Zhenguo Niu, and Wei Chen

most noticeable impact on open water is reflected in water surface temperature ( Yan and Zheng 2015 ). Recent studies have focused on the relationship between ocean surface temperature and global climate change ( Chen et al. 2018 ; Carrillo et al. 2018 ; Yan et al. 2016 ; Shirvani et al. 2015 ), while there are relatively few studies on inland water surface temperature (IWST). According to a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and a National Science Foundation–funded study

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Erin Dougherty, Erin Sherman, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

the warm sector of extratropical cyclones coming off the Pacific Ocean ( Neiman et al. 2008 ). They are defined in a variety of ways, based upon their scale and intensity. Neiman et al. (2008) defined them as narrow plumes of integrated water vapor (IWV) exceeding 2 cm and over 2000 km long and less than 1000 km wide. They are also defined by integrated water vapor transport (IVT), with one common form of this equation given by Gao et al. (2015) : (1) IVT = ⁡ ( 1 g ∫ 1000 500 q u   d p ) 2

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Prabhakar Shrestha

water storage. The model was then initialized with spinup soil–vegetation states, and a 10-yr transient run from 2008 to 2017 was conducted using the offline atmospheric forcing data. The vegetation phenology (consisting of monthly data) was updated yearly based on the MODIS remote sensing product. The model was integrated at hourly frequency, and the outputs were generated at 5-day intervals. d. Observations The near-surface soil moisture from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Kerr et al

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Jessica C. A. Baker, Dayana Castilho de Souza, Paulo Y. Kubota, Wolfgang Buermann, Caio A. S. Coelho, Martin B. Andrews, Manuel Gloor, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Silvio N. Figueroa, and Dominick V. Spracklen

downloaded from the CMIP6 Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) archives ( https://esgf-index1.ceda.ac.uk/search/cmip6-ceda/ ) at monthly resolution (surface SM data only were downloaded at daily resolution and converted to monthly means, due to monthly output being unavailable for this variable). MM (medium resolution in atmosphere and ocean) simulations (N216) have a horizontal resolution equivalent to approximately 60 km in the midlatitudes ( Roberts et al. 2019 ). HadGEM3 uses the Unified Model global

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