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Motoki Nagura, Yukio Masumoto, and Takanori Horii

variability simulated by their model does not compare very well with observations. In this study, we estimate meridional heat transport and heat advection caused by mixed Rossby gravity waves in the Indian Ocean using in situ observations and an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) output. We also discuss associated dynamics, conducting an idealized experiment with a linear continuously stratified model. Based on the consensus that mixed Rossby gravity waves dominate, we can guess their contributions to

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Peng Wang, James C. McWilliams, and Yusuke Uchiyama

shelf break, cold fresh shelf water is separated from warm salty slope water by a shelf-break front ( Houghton et al. 1988 ; Chapman and Lentz 1994 ; Gawarkiewicz et al. 2004 ). Internal waves can create fronts parallel to wave crests, and such fronts usually move with the waves ( Shanks 1983 ; Pineda 1994 ). Surface gravity waves affect oceanic frontogenesis ( Suzuki et al. 2016 ; McWilliams 2018 ). Surface waves may sharpen or widen a front depending on the alignment between the front and

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Ali Tamizi and Ian R. Young

Tamizi by the University of Melbourne through a Ph.D. scholarship. The development of the altimeter database was supported by a grant from the Integrated Marine Observing System. REFERENCES Beal , R. C. , T. W. Gerling , D. E. Irvine , F. M. Monaldo , and D. G. Tilley , 1986 : Spatial variations of ocean wave directional spectra from the Seasat synthetic aperture radar . J. Geophys. Res. , 91 , 2433 – 2449 , https://doi.org/10.1029/JC091iC02p02433 . 10.1029/JC091iC02p02433 Black

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Hayley V. Dosser and Luc Rainville

1. Introduction The standard picture of Arctic internal waves derives from observations made during the 1980s and 1990s [e.g., the Arctic Internal Waves Experiment (AIWEX) in spring of 1985 ( Levine et al. 1987 ; D’Asaro and Morehead 1991 ; Merrifield and Pinkel 1996 ) and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Experiment (SHEBA) in 1997 to 1998 ( Pinkel 2005 )], which found a quiescent Arctic Ocean with an internal wave field energy level an order of magnitude or more below that at lower

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I. R. Young, A. V. Babanin, and S. Zieger

1. Introduction Ocean swell is typically characterized as waves that have propagated away from their generation region and are no longer receiving active energy input from the local wind. As such, they can be represented by , where is the wind speed measured at a reference height of 10 m, and is the phase speed of the waves. A number of studies ( Barstow 1996 ; Young 1999 ; Chen et al. 2002 ; Gulev et al. 2003 ; Sterl and Caires 2005 ; Gulev and Grigorieva 2006 ; Semedo et al. 2011

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Pieter B. Smit and Tim T. Janssen

1. Introduction Pioneering work in the mid-twentieth century ( Munk and Traylor 1947 ; Barber and Ursell 1948 ; Munk et al. 1963 ; Snodgrass et al. 1966 ) explored the foundations of swell dynamics over large propagation distances in the open ocean, and explained observed narrowing (in frequency and directional space) of the wave spectrum by frequency dispersion and geometric spreading. The evolution of ocean waves over long distances is important for many physical processes, including wave

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C. A. Hegermiller, J. A. A. Antolinez, A. Rueda, P. Camus, J. Perez, L. H. Erikson, P. L. Barnard, and F. J. Mendez

1. Introduction At a given time, the wave state of the ocean surface is a composite of wind seas and swell. Wind seas are generated by and strongly coupled with local winds, whereas swell is generated remotely and might have propagated over large distances. Though multiple definitions exist, swell can be distinguished from wind seas when the wave phase speed exceeds the overlaying wind speed by 20% ( Semedo et al. 2011 ). Swells and seas are functions of both the intensity and frequency of

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Johannes Gemmrich and Chris Garrett

1. Introduction The height of ocean surface waves is largely a function of wind speed, duration, and fetch ( Holthuijsen 2007 ), and potential long-term trends in wave height might be a tool for monitoring climate change ( Young et al. 2011 ). Ambient currents on various time scales can change the amplitude, direction, and frequency of ocean surface waves ( Holthuijsen 2007 ). Regions with persistent strong currents, such as the Agulhas Current off the east coast of South Africa, are known as

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Laurent Grare, Luc Lenain, and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction The interactions between turbulent winds and ocean waves play essential roles in many important atmosphere–ocean phenomena. They drive the exchange of mass, momentum, and heat between the atmosphere and the ocean, which are key processes needed to validate and improve models of the atmosphere, the upper ocean, and the waves. To understand and parameterize the processes occurring at, above, and below the wavy sea surface, an explicit description of the airflow over surface waves

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Christie A. Hegermiller, John C. Warner, Maitane Olabarrieta, and Christopher R. Sherwood

has reemphasized the importance of wave–current interaction over large-scale currents over the global ocean, for example the Agulhas Current, the Leeuwin Current ( Wandres et al. 2017 ), the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC; Rapizo et al. 2018 ), and the Gulf Stream and related mesoscale eddies ( Ardhuin et al. 2017 ). Warner et al. (2017) invoked wave–current interaction over the Gulf Stream as generating maximum wave heights during Hurricane Sandy (2012). Ardhuin et al. (2017) found that

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