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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

, and at Fort Chimo (Kuujjuaq, Nunavit) are also included. The IPY period is marked by gray lines. The collapse of the Signal Service network in 1887 is apparent. The first thorough synthesis studies of the meteorology and oceanography of the Pacific Arctic to be produced in the nineteenth century were made by William Dall of the U.S. Coast Survey. These were Coast Pilot of Alaska, Appendix I : Meteorology ( Dall 1879 ) and Report on the Currents and Temperatures of Bering Sea and the Adjacent

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D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, and H. E. Revercomb

atmospheric pathlength is longer, and the water vapor concentration is the highest in the boundary layer. However, the propagating GPS signal could multipath (i.e., reflect off the ground) when the satellite was close to the horizon, which would result in overestimates of the wet delay and hence SPWV because of inappropriately long pathlengths. Ultimately, through long-term comparisons at the SGP site and WVIOP results, the compromise between good sensitivity to boundary layer moisture and minimal

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

the world ( Petters and Wright 2015 ). Overlain are aerosol measurements from DeMott et al. (2016) . The data illustrate the range of atmospheric INP concentrations, representing conditions from the remote marine boundary layer to biologically active continental surface sites. [Figure from Hill et al. (2017 ). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.] For both liquid and ice clouds, the initial formation of cloud particles is then followed by processes that include interactions with water vapor

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Greg M. McFarquhar, Darrel Baumgardner, Aaron Bansemer, Steven J. Abel, Jonathan Crosier, Jeff French, Phil Rosenberg, Alexei Korolev, Alfons Schwarzoenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Junshik Um, Wei Wu, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Cynthia Twohy, Andrew Detwiler, Paul Field, Andrea Neumann, Richard Cotton, Duncan Axisa, and Jiayin Dong

instrumental problems, concentrating on measurement principles, limitations, and uncertainties. Korolev et al. (2017 , chapter 5) examines issues related to mixed-phase clouds, concentrating on additional complications in measurements and related processing that arise when liquid and ice phases coexist. This current chapter concentrates on an additional source of uncertainty that has not received as much attention, namely, that introduced by algorithms used to process data. Such algorithms play a critical

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Keith L. Seitter, Jinny Nathans, and Sophie Mankins

printed issues that were mailed combined for a total of 108 pages. By volume 10, in 1953, the journal was mailing issues to subscribers six times per year, and 488 pages were published that year. A current AMS journal that predates the Journal of Meteorology by quite a wide margin is MWR . The journal was initially established in 1872 by the U.S. Army Signal Corps. In 1890, the U.S. government created the U.S. Weather Bureau as a civilian agency and transferred the meteorological responsibilities

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Joseph J. Michalsky and Charles N. Long

compared to GHI measurements obtained with top-of-the-line pyranometers [see chapter 6 in Vignola et al. (2012) ]. The current estimates of 95% uncertainties of GHI are about ±3% under very good conditions; therefore, a reasonable estimate of uncertainty for routine field operations is higher at ±4%. The DHI is measured with a current 95% uncertainty of about ±2% for very good conditions and ±3% under field conditions. The Eppley model normal incidence pyrheliometer (NIP) is used to measure broadband

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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

retrieve profiles of water vapor and temperature in the boundary layer ( Feltz et al. 2003 ), and the use of the Raman lidar to obtain more continuous water vapor profiles ( Turner and Goldsmith 1999 ). In addition to these observation-oriented activities, there was also a great deal of activity related to the improvement of infrared radiative transfer models going on within the IRF working group. Particular areas of focus were improvements in the water vapor continuum, which led to the ability to

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martina Krämer, Anna Luebke, Phil Brown, Daniel J. Cziczo, Charmaine Franklin, Paul Lawson, Ulrike Lohmann, Greg McFarquhar, Zbigniew Ulanowski, and Kristof Van Tricht

Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich in 2013, and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2014. There was a clear need identified at the workshop and in discussions that followed to provide a synthesis of the current understanding of cirrus. The focus of this chapter is to use observations of, and measurements within, cirrus clouds to characterize their properties. We describe the macrophysical properties of cirrus, how they form, their microphysical properties, their

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Ronald B. Smith

current article is divided into seven main sections. The second section “How high is a mountain?” discusses the physical properties of the atmosphere that control the influence of mountains. The third section summarizes the mathematical description of terrain geometry. The following four sections treat the physics and fluid dynamics of how mountains influence weather and climate. In section 4 , the impact of mountains on surface winds is reviewed, including mountaintop winds, downslope winds, barrier

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Gerald M. Stokes

definition of a second experiment, the single column model (SCM). This approach, advocated by Dave Randall of Colorado State University and Richard Somerville of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, became the basis for addressing the cloud formation problem. In the SCM, one would not only specify the state of the atmosphere as a function of altitude averaged over a climate grid model scale volume but also define the fluxes at the boundaries of the cells of quantities such as water vapor and other

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