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S. A. Thorpe, T. R. Osborn, J. F. E. Jackson, A. J. Hall, and R. G. Lueck

. This tilted pattern is drawn to be consistent with the wind direction and the sense of the tilt observed in the temperature field in measurements in Loch Ness ( Thorpe and Hall 1982 ) and interpreted as being a consequence of the Ekman flow (to the left for a wind vector out of the figure) induced by the earth's rotation. That tilt, and consequently rotation, are not important here may be because of the relatively short period of uniform wind forcing. Some of the features of bubble clouds shown in

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William G. Large, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Scott C. Doney, and James C. McWilliams

) forcing of the ocean surface, so it is important to have a consistent treatment of clouds for both radiative components. Bishop and Rossow (1991) present an algorithm, based on a one-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer model, for computing surface shortwave irradiance from the ISCCP cloud data on the same grid as the C1 cloud data. The daily mean surface insolation from Version 2 ( Bishop et al. 1997 ) is used here, and a constant albedo of 7% is applied to the downward shortwave flux to

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Robert L. Haney

part of the midlatitude North Pacific, suggesting that local wind forcing byitself is relatively unimportant for SST anomaly generation in these locations. Throughout the midlatitude North Pacific, however, the hindcast SST anomalies are only about one-thirdas intense as the observed anomalies. It is suggested that this discrepancy is due to the absence of forcing byanomalous surface heat fluxes in the model hindcast.1. Introduction In recent years, meteorologists and oceanographershave

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Robert Kopte, Peter Brandt, Martin Claus, Richard J. Greatbatch, and Marcus Dengler

rainfall variability, affecting both fishery and agricultural sectors of the neighboring countries ( Gammelsrød et al. 1998 ). Based on regional modeling studies excluding the seasonal cycle in the analysis, Bachèlery et al. (2016) attributed intraseasonal variability in the upwelling system mainly to local forcing, which is in agreement with an observational study of submonthly to intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the central Benguela upwelling region ( Goubanova et al. 2013

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Eric A. D'Asaro

distinctmeteorological feature, such as a cold front, it is notclear whether the forcing is equally strong at allpoints along this feature, or at all times in its life.Cold fronts, for example, are not uniform along theirlength, but exhibit waves, kinks, and cloud clusterson a variety of scales (Houze and Hobbs, 1982). Doesthe strength of the inertial frequency forcing varyalong the front, do local "hot spots" exist, or is theforcing uniform over many hundreds of kilometers?These questions are important in

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David Farmer and Ming Li

1426 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME25Patterns of Bubble Clouds Organized by Langmuir Circulation DAVID FARMER AND MING LI*Instit~tte of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada(Manu~crlpt received 18 July 1994, in final form 26 October 1994)ABSTRACT A cpmmonly observed property of near-surface bubble distributions is their collective organization into longrows aligned with

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Sonya Legg, Helen Jones, and Martin Visbeck

these scenarios, which concur with those obtained by other authors. Advantagesof the heton model include its inviscid nature, emphasizing the independence of the fluxes affected by thebaroclinic eddies from molecular prpcesses, and its extreme economy, allowing a very large parameter space tobe covered. This economy allows us to examine more complicated forcing scenarios: for example, forcing regionsof varying shape. By increasing the ellipticity of the forcing region, the instability is modified by

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Gengxin Chen, Weiqing Han, Yuanlong Li, and Dongxiao Wang

010647 . Loeb , N. G. , K. J. Priestley , D. P. Kratz , E. B. Geier , R. N. Green , B. A. Wielicki , P. O’Rawe Hinton , and S. K. Nolan , 2001 : Determination of unfiltered radiances from the clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System instrument . J. Appl. Meteor. , 40 , 822 – 835 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0822:DOURFT>2.0.CO;2 . McCreary , J. P. , S. R. Shetye , and P. K. Kundu , 1986 : Thermohaline forcing of eastern boundary currents: With application

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Michael J. Bell, Adam T. Blaker, and Joël J.-M. Hirschi

associated with different cloud feedbacks and different equilibrium climate sensitivities (the global SST warming for a given increase in greenhouse gas forcing). Second, in ocean models the equatorial MOC stands out as having high variability on short (days to seasonal) time scales. The large seasonal variability can readily be explained by changes in the wind-driven Ekman overturning cells associated with the seasonal movement of the intertropical convergence zone (e.g., Lee and Marotzke 1998 ). In

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Yun He, Xiao-Hai Yan, and W. Timothy Liu

1. Introduction The ocean is largely forced at the surface by wind stresses (momentum flux) and heat fluxes. Since direct measurements of wind stresses and heat fluxes are difficult, bulk parameterization formulae have been used to estimate the fluxes from measurements reported routinely by volunteer ships, which include cloud fraction, sea surface temperature, wind speed, air temperature, and humidity (in the form of dry bulb temperature or dewpoint temperature). The transfer coefficients were

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