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Patrick J. Luyten, John E. Jones, and Roger Proctor

isopycnals. Further details about the governing equations, numerical methods, and discretization schemes are found in Luyten et al. (1999) . Surface stress and heat flux are calculated as a function of wind and sea-air temperature difference using the bulk formulas of Kondo (1975) . The meteorological forcing data have been provided at 3-hourly intervals by the U.K. Meteorological Office, except for cloud coverage, which is obtained from satellite data with a daily value taken to be uniform over the

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Luigi Cavaleri

referred to as “double penalty.” The transfer of energy from the atmosphere to waves depends directly on the air density ρ . The variability of ρ , for instance with air temperature and atmospheric pressure, is not always considered in wave modeling. Certainly this is still the case in most a posteriori applications. However, considering the Northern Hemisphere, some of the most severe storms at high latitudes often involve cold air masses descending from the north. With respect to the standard

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Amy Ffield and Arnold L. Gordon

time dependent allowingthem to be discerned within a time series by their periodicities (Loder and Garrett 1978). For example,tidal mixing can cool the sea surface temperature(SST) by mixing colder deeper water to the surface.Strong tidal mixing may be expected to depress the SSTmore than usual; weak tidal mixing less so. In section2, CTD time series stations are used to demonstrate thatthe thermocline seems to oscillate at the semidiurnaltidal period in the Indonesian seas with associated vertical

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Paola Malanotte Rizzoli and Andrea Bergamasco

, mix the water column to the bottom. In particular, the northern Adriatic is a site ofdense, deep water formation in winter (Hendershottand Rizzoli, 1976; Malanotte-Rizzoli, 1977). In factepisodes occur, most often during the months of January and February, of outbreaks of cold, dry air ofEuro-Asiatic origin blowing directly onto the northern Adriatic and lasting for 10-20 days. During theseepisodes, evaporation and cooling fluxes are intenseenough to produce a water mass of remarkably highsigma

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Leonel Romero and W. Kendall Melville

: A study of wave spectra with an airborne laser. J. Geophys. Res. , 76 , 4160 – 4171 . Schultz , D. M. , W. E. Bracken , and L. F. Bosart , 1998 : Planetary- and synoptic-scale signatures associated with Central American cold surges. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 126 , 5 – 27 . Smith , W. H. F. , and D. T. Sandwell , 1997 : Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science , 277 , 1957 – 1962 . Socquet-Juglard , H. , K. Dysthe , K. Trulsen

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Lisan Yu and Michael J. McPhaden

1. Introduction Tropical Cyclone Nargis reached category-4 hurricane strength, causing the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar ( Webster 2008 ; McPhaden et al. 2009a ). The cyclone struck the mouth of the Irrawaddy River on 2 May 2008 ( Fig. 1 ) and devastated the region with peak winds of 65 m s −1 , 60 cm of rain, and a storm surge as much as 5 m high. More than 146 000 lives were lost, and more than one million people became homeless. The tragic human cost from Cyclone

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Amy S. Bower, William E. Johns, David M. Fratantoni, and Hartmut Peters

coarse-resolution along-axis hydrographic sections ( Siedler 1968 ; Wyrtki 1971 ; Mecking and Warner 1999 ). While valuable for determining transformation rates through the GOA, these observations provided limited insight into the physical mechanisms that transport RSOW eastward through the gulf. In their analysis of available nonsynoptic historical hydrographic data, and synoptic Air-Deployed Expendable Bathythermograph (AXBT) surveys conducted by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) in

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Peigen Lin, Robert S. Pickart, Kerstin Jochumsen, G. W. K. Moore, Héðinn Valdimarsson, Tim Fristedt, and Lawrence J. Pratt

1. Introduction The dense water formed in the Nordic Seas is the main source of lower North Atlantic Deep Water that plays an essential role in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) ( Dickson and Brown 1994 ). Studies have now demonstrated that the dominant contribution to the AMOC is associated with the warm-to-cold transformation that occurs in the Nordic Seas as opposed to that which takes place in the Labrador Sea ( Pickart and Spall 2007 ; Holte and Straneo 2017 ; Lozier

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Lie-Yauw Oey, Jia Wang, and M.-A. Lee

). Here, the seawater is kept warm [sea surface temperature (SST) ≈ 15°–23°C] and brackish (salinity S ≈ 33.5–35 psu) by frequent intrusions of warm and saline Kuroshio water that mixes with the cold and less-saline coastal water ( Oey et al. 2013 ; Wang and Oey 2014 , 2016 ). As the growth rate of fish is closely related to the habitat temperature, which affects the larval metabolic rate ( Houde 1989 ; Houde and Zastrow 1993 ; Sanchez-Ramirez and Flores-Coto 1998 ; Shoji et al. 2006 ), the

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L. Håvard Slørdal and Jan E. Weber

computational time so that tides and storm surge events alsocan be simulated. This is accomplished by use of a timesplitting procedure whereby the volume transport andvertical velocity shear are solved separately. The vertical mixing processes are calculated by applying ananalytical turbulence closure model of small-scale turbulence (Mellor and Yamada 1982; Galperin et al.1988). A terrain-following sigma (a) coordinate system is incorporated in the model. This makes the number of grid points in the vertical

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