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William B. Rossow, Yuanchong Zhang, and George Tselioudis

a set of global weather states (GWS) and showed additionally that they exhibit characteristic cloud vertical structures and are associated with characteristic mean atmospheric vertical motions. We propose that these GWS and their composite atmospheric diabatic heating should be used to explore whether they can represent the connection between the time variations of the cloud processes and the atmospheric circulation. 2. Data and methods The data products used here are as follows. The GWS

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Qingqing Li, Yuqing Wang, and Yihong Duan

1. Introduction It has been long known that one of the necessary conditions for tropical cyclone (TC) development and maintenance is the diabatic heating due to condensation in moist convection ( Malkus and Riehl 1960 ; Riehl and Malkus 1961 ; Yanai 1961 ; Möller and Shapiro 2002 ; Bui et al. 2009 ; and others). Many numerical studies have documented the effects of diabatic heating and cooling associated with the overall TC circulation on TC structure and intensity and their changes. Wang

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Seiji Kato, Norman G. Loeb, John T. Fasullo, Kevin E. Trenberth, Peter H. Lauritzen, Fred G. Rose, David A. Rutan, and Masaki Satoh

rate (e.g., Held et al. 2019 ) because of, in part, the existence of a significant energy balance residual when satellite energy flux products are integrated. While the total energy is conserved, energy is converted and transferred in various different forms in the atmosphere. Although the regional energy balance in the atmosphere is largely achieved with diabatic heating by precipitation, radiative cooling, and dry static energy divergence by dynamics ( Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a ; Kato et al

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Norman G. Loeb, David A. Rutan, Seiji Kato, and Weijie Wang

1. Introduction At the global scale, there is an energy balance between atmospheric radiative cooling and sensible and latent heat flux from the surface to the atmosphere. Underlying this global balance is a highly inhomogeneous regional distribution of diabatic heating and cooling. On average, radiative cooling dominates over heating in the extratropics and polar regions, and latent and sensible heating dominate in the tropics. To maintain a regional atmospheric energy balance, atmospheric

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Hironori Fudeyasu and Yuqing Wang

1. Introduction To first order, the primary circulation of a strong tropical cyclone can be considered as a warm-cored, quasi-axisymmetric vortex in gradient wind and hydrostatic balance. As a tropical cyclone evolves slowly while its primary circulation remains in gradient wind and hydrostatic balance, the secondary circulation (radial and vertical circulation) can be considered as a result of the response to both diabatic heating and momentum forcing, including surface friction. The secondary

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Yumin Moon and David S. Nolan

heating rate in outer spiral rainbands formed within numerically simulated tropical cyclones. Wang (2009) found that the effect of the increased (decreased) diabatic heating rate in rainbands is to weaken (strengthen) the intensity of hurricanes but make them larger (smaller) in size. To understand the effects of spiral rainbands on tropical cyclones, it is necessary to fully incorporate their dynamic and thermodynamic aspects; however, their dynamics and thermodynamics must be driven in large part

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Erik T. Swenson and David M. Straus

transient momentum and heat fluxes ( Held et al. 1989 ). A wealth of theory developed over the past decades uses the paradigm of external tropical forcing (e.g., Sardeshmukh and Hoskins 1988 ), which is almost universally understood in terms of a seasonal mean. The seasonal redistribution of diabatic heating rate Q , primarily from the release of latent heat from convection across the tropical Pacific, is generally considered the relevant tropical determinant for the seasonal-mean extratropical

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Charlotte A. DeMott and Steven A. Rutledge

1. Introduction The vertical distribution of hydrometeors in tropical precipitating systems impacts longwave and shortwave radiation budgets ( Wong et al. 1993 ), diabatic heating profiles ( Lau et al. 1989 ), and lightning production ( Lhermitte and Williams 1985 ; Petersen et al. 1996 ). Over the past decade or so, observations have yielded insights into how convective-scale hydrometeor distributions, vertical motion, heating profiles, and lightning production in the Tropics are all

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Robert Cifelli, Lawrence Carey, Walter A. Petersen, and Steven A. Rutledge

1. Introduction The majority of rainfall on earth occurs within the tropical regions defined roughly by the latitude belts of 30°N and 30°S. This rain is accompanied by diabatic processes and associated mass fluxes, which influence the surrounding environment through compensating vertical air motions ( Yanai et al. 1973 ). The distribution of this diabatic heating within tropical precipitating cloud systems plays an important role in driving quasi-stationary large-scale circulation features

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Li-Huan Hsu, Shih-Hao Su, Robert G. Fovell, and Hung-Chi Kuo

stretching on the lee side of the CMR may lead to the DTs of typhoons. In addition to its mechanical effects, topographically modulated diabatic heating may also play an important role in influencing TC motion ( Chang 1982 ; Chan et al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2012 , 2013 ). Topographically phase-locked, convective diabatic heating induced by the TC circulation impacting the CMR can significantly alter the TC track ( Hsu et al. 2013 , hereafter H13 ; Tang and Chan 2014 , 2015 ). H13 also suggested the

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