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Pedro M. Sousa, Alexandre M. Ramos, Christoph C. Raible, M. Messmer, Ricardo Tomé, Joaquim G. Pinto, and Ricardo M. Trigo

1. Introduction Precipitation variability in western Europe is linked with the intensity and latitudinal location of water vapor transport. In this context, atmospheric rivers (ARs; Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Dettinger et al. 2015 ), that is, a narrow band or corridor of high vertically integrated horizontal water vapor transport (IVT), gain particular relevance. These structures are responsible for local intense moisture convergence ( Dacre et al. 2019 ), associated with the

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Ning Shi, SuolangTajie, Pinyu Tian, Yicheng Wang, and Xiaoqiong Wang

evolutionary features of the Ural–Siberia blocking high in boreal winter via thermodynamic and geostrophic vorticity tendency equations. They noted that the horizontal advections of both vorticity and air temperature played fundamental roles in the generation of Ural–Siberia blocking highs. In their study, a Ural–Siberia blocking high refers to a blocking high centered in the interval (30°–100°E), which covers parts of Europe and the Ural Mountains. Based on winter-mean data, Cheung et al. (2012) implied

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David A. Williams, David M. Schultz, Kevin J. Horsburgh, and Chris W. Hughes

; Olabarrieta et al. 2017 ; Dusek et al. 2019 ). In these places, a moderately large meteotsunami (~1 m) is expected once every few years. The biggest similarity between these regions is that they contain a large (~10 5 km 2 ) region of shallow, gently sloping bathymetry. However, a similarly large (6 × 10 5 km 2 ) region that is known for meteotsunamis has not been represented by a regional climatology—the northwest European continental shelf ( Fig. 1 ). Table 1. Choices made when producing

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M. Ionita, M. Dima, G. Lohmann, P. Scholz, and N. Rimbu

1. Introduction After several days of heavy rainfall, ongoing flooding in central Europe began in late May 2013. It primarily affected the southern and the eastern parts of Germany and western regions of the Czech Republic ( Munich RE 2013 ). The flood crest then progressed down the Elbe and Danube drainage basins and tributaries, leading to high water levels along their banks. This resulted in an overall loss of more than EUR 12 billion and an insured loss in the region of more than EUR 3

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M. Lockhoff, O. Zolina, C. Simmer, and J. Schulz

a large fraction of missing data resulting in inadequate temporal and spatial sampling even over relatively densely sampled areas like Europe. Consequently, continental-scale studies on precipitation variability and trends based on rain gauge observations (e.g., Klein Tank and Können 2003 ; Zolina et al. 2009 ) seldom provide useful estimates of variability patterns except over areas with high-quality long-term dense observation networks. Satellite-based precipitation estimates, which are

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Brice E. Coffer, Mateusz Taszarek, and Matthew D. Parker

Europe have long been hindered by a lack of standardized reporting practices of severe weather events. To address this issue, researchers at the European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) began developing the European severe weather database (ESWD) in the mid-2000s to create a standardized database across nations in collaboration with networks of volunteers and multiple meteorological agencies ( Dotzek et al. 2009 ). Historical and current reports are actively integrated into the ESWD and recent events

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Bogdan Antonescu, Jonathan G. Fairman Jr., and David M. Schultz

1. Introduction The general public as well as many researchers and meteorologists do not consider tornadoes to be a large threat to Europe because of their supposed rarity and weaker intensity compared to their American counterparts. Reliable measures of the number and economic impact of European tornadoes were unavailable until recently ( Groenemeijer and Kühne 2014 ; Grieser and Terenzi 2016 ; Antonescu et al. 2016 , 2017 ). The results of these studies reveal that not only are European

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J. Ignacio López-Moreno and Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano

1. Introduction Droughts are first-order hazards that affect Europe with a high frequency and intensity. Although droughts are complex and are related to a multitude of factors ( Wilhite and Glantz 1985 ), they always have a climatic origin: below-average precipitation over the medium to long term. This climatic origin of droughts has led to significant interest in the behavior and characteristics of climatic droughts within Europe. Previous studies have focused on this topic, analyzing the

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David Fereday

for phase space maxima is cluster analysis, with one of the most popular variants being k -means cluster analysis (e.g., M95 ). This method partitions a collection of fields into a set of clusters by assigning each field to a cluster and then moving fields between clusters to minimize the total within cluster variance. The number of clusters k must be specified beforehand, which leads to the problem of determining how many clusters exist in the system. Many papers focus on the North Atlantic–European

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T. Jung, T. N. Palmer, M. J. Rodwell, and S. Serrar

1. Introduction It is well known that persistent large-scale extratropical circulation anomalies such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) have a profound impact on the climate of populated areas such as Europe and North America (e.g., van Loon and Rogers 1978 ; Hurrell 1995 ). Attempts have therefore been made to understand the mechanisms that drive extratropical atmospheric circulation anomalies. It is now widely accepted that a large part of the extratropical variability in the North

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