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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

; potential temperature; and density of dry air, water vapor, cloud water, cloud ice, snow, and graupel. The model also includes state-of-the-art physical parameterizations such as cloud microphysics ( Ikawa and Saito 1991 ), atmospheric radiative transfer ( Sugi et al. 1990 ), turbulent mixing ( Kumagai and Saito 2004 ), boundary layer processes ( Sun and Chang 1986 ), and surface flux estimations ( Sommeria 1976 ; Louis et al. 1982 ). Convective precipitation is compensated by the Kain–Fritsch scheme

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Larry W. O’Neill, Tracy Haack, and Theodore Durland

evaluated the COAMPS 10-m wind forecasts with 11 buoys in the North Atlantic for the calendar year 2009. Locations of these buoys, as part of the NDBC and CDFO observation systems, are shown in Fig. 6a . They provided measurements at typically between 4- and 5-m height. The in situ buoy wind speeds were adjusted to 10-m height using the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) bulk flux algorithm version 3.0 ( Fairall et al. 2003 ) with inputs of buoy air temperature, SST, air humidity, and

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Peter Gaube, Dudley B. Chelton, Roger M. Samelson, Michael G. Schlax, and Larry W. O’Neill

is based on the bulk flux formulation from the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment, version 3.0 (COARE 3.0; Fairall et al. 2003 ). Surface stresses computed by the COARE 3.0 algorithm are about 15% larger than those computed by the Large et al. (1994) algorithm (see Fig. B2 of Risien and Chelton 2008 ), but the conclusions of this study are not significantly dependent on the choice of C D . The surface stress τ , stress components τ x and τ y , and vector winds were calculated

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