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William J. Shaw and Timothy P. Stanton

water column. Example profiles from the Ambient, Halo, and Taylor cap water masses ( Fig. 3 ) and sections across Maud Rise ( Fig. 4 ) capture the geographic variability in the static stability of the water column. Radial variability across the seamount is clearly visible in the northwest-to-southeast transect over the rise ( Fig. 4 , section A–B). Spatial variability in surface salinity is also highlighted by the color-coded symbols in Fig. 1 . Fig . 3. Example profiles of (a) potential

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Mateusz Taszarek, Bartosz Czernecki, and Aneta Kozioł

intensity of thunderstorms ( Rakov and Uman 2003 ). Storms with either one lightning strike or thousands of flashes are reported as one thunderstorm. This however can be examined using lightning detection that allows one to count the number of flashes on particular days and in particular locations. CG lightning flash climatologies based on data from ground-based lightning detection networks have been developed for some European countries. a. Central Europe Based on data recorded between 1992 and 2001

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Hye-Mi Kim, Daehyun Kim, Frederic Vitart, Violeta E. Toma, Jong-Seong Kug, and Peter J. Webster

room for further enhancing MJO prediction by improving various aspects of the prediction system based on a better understanding the MJO phenomena. Understanding strengths and weaknesses of the current prediction systems would be the first step toward enhancing the MJO prediction skill. There is consensus emerging from recent studies regarding the factors affecting the MJO predictability and prediction skill. The main factors, besides the ability of the model, are the geographic location of the MJO

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Aijing Zhang, Wenbin Liu, Zhenliang Yin, Guobin Fu, and Chunmiao Zheng

hydrological changes to assist in the development of adaptive strategies for effective water resource and ecological management are urgently needed in the HRB. Fig . 1. (a) Location of the study area, (b) DEM map with the locations of the hydrometeorological stations in the study area, and (c) subbasins and land-cover map of the study area. Relevant studies have found that a change from a warm-dry climate to a warm-wet climate in northwest China started in the late 1980s ( Shi et al. 2007 ). In the HRB

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Jagadish Thaker, Edward Maibach, Anthony Leiserowitz, Xiaoquan Zhao, and Peter Howe

geographic locale, ignored in a previous analysis, and with additional demographic control variables. 2. Literature review a. Collective efficacy: A conceptual analysis According to social cognitive theory ( Bandura 1997 ), human behavior is regulated by personal and social factors and is primarily driven by an individual’s self-efficacy, that is, the “beliefs in one’s capacity to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” ( Bandura 1997 , p. 3). Self

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Joëlle Gergis, Raphael Neukom, Ailie J. E. Gallant, and David J. Karoly

coral records with monthly, bimonthly, or seasonal resolution were averaged over the SONDJF period to align with the warm season reconstruction window. For predictor selection, both proxy climate and instrumental data were linearly detrended over 1931–90. As detailed in appendix A , only records that were significantly ( p < 0.05) correlated with temperature variations in at least one grid cell within 500 km of the proxy’s location over the 1931–90 period were selected for further analysis. This

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Yukari Sumi and Hirohiko Masunaga

center of WIG wave is detected by utilizing a longitude–time cross section of filtered TBB data. First, zonal local minima of filtered TBB are searched at each time. Only a minimum locating at the center of a search area of ±10° is picked up, ignoring noisy fluctuations. All local minima are searched by moving the search area in zonal direction. Next, the minima colder than minus two standard deviations σ are defined as the longitudinal location of convective centers of WIG waves (WIG peaks). This

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Alexander Hall and Georgina Endfield

station and the site of the longest unbroken set of mountain temperature records in the United Kingdom. 1 Moreover, this area is the location of England’s only named wind, the Helm Wind, which many people, including artists, scholars, and scientists, Manley among them, have studied ( Veale et al. 2014 ). Even with such a long history of climatological interest, official meteorological snow records for the region are inconsistent, with only one nearby weather station, at Alston, maintaining a

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María Paz Chidichimo, Kathleen A. Donohue, D. Randolph Watts, and Karen L. Tracey

pressure at two laterally separated sites, geostrophy allows us to compute vertical profiles of the normal component of the baroclinic velocity u g ( p ) at a pressure p relative to p ref between two sites 1 and 2: where f is the Coriolis parameter and L = x 1 − x 2 , where x 1 and x 2 represent the locations of the sites. The geostrophic baroclinic transport at each time step is then computed as the vertical and lateral integral of the geostrophic velocities u g ( p ) from the

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Dagrun Vikhamar-Schuler, Ketil Isaksen, Jan Erik Haugen, Hans Tømmervik, Bartlomiej Luks, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, and Jarle W. Bjerke

winter warming events in the twenty-first century. A better understanding of extreme winter events in the Arctic is then required, as stated by Dicks et al. (2012) and Bokhorst et al. (2016) . In this paper, we identify and analyze changes in intensity and frequency of winter warming events over the past 50–100 years, the present 15 years (2000–14), and the future (twenty-first century) in the NAR. The NAR is defined geographically as those parts of Norway, Sweden, and Finland that are north of

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