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B. K. McAtee, A. J. Prata, and M. J. Lynch

thermal infrared radiation (TIR) from natural land surfaces ( Sobrino et al. 1996 ; Sobrino and Cuenca 1999 ). The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for land surfaces in the visible and near-infrared is currently under intense study, and several BRDF models have been developed. The situation in the thermal infrared window region (8–12 μ m) is much less advanced, and relatively little has been established concerning the bidirectional thermal emission distribution function (BEDF

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Carlton W. Ulbrich and David Atlas

SEPTEMBER 1985 CARLTON W. ULBRICH AND DAVID ATLAS 331Extinction of Visible and Infrared Radiation in Rain:Comparison of Theory and Experiment CARLTON W. ULBRICH*NAS/NRC Resident Research Associate, Laboratory for Oceans, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 DAVID ATLAS**Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771(Manuscript

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George Ohring, Arnold Gruber, and Robert Ellingson

have been used to monitor theradiation budget of the earth-atmosphere system (ERB)(Gruber and Winston, 1978). The major purpose ofthese operational scanners is to provide visible (0.5-0.7 ~m) and infrared (10.5-12,5 ~sm) cloud imageryfor weather analysis and forecasting. Their use for radiation budget estimates is based on the high correlation between narrow- and broad-band radiation observations. The total longwave flux to space is obtainedfrom the infrared window observations by applying

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Ashok Sinha and John E. Harries

. Davies, 1989: Line shape and the water vapor continuum. Atmos. Res., 23, 229–241. ——, M. J. Iacono, and J.-L. Moncet, 1992: Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to water vapour. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 15 761–15 785. Collins, W. D., and A. K. Inamdar, 1995: Validation of clear-sky fluxes for tropical oceans from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. J. Climate, 8, 569–578. Davies, G. R., 1993: The far infrared continuum absorption of water

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Rosie Howard and Roland Stull

-surface temperature, by the Stefan–Boltzmann law. The three components of net radiation just described are important but relatively simple to calculate in comparison with downwelling longwave radiation, especially under clear skies. The latter is dependent upon all sources of infrared radiation in the upper hemisphere above a plane parallel to the surface of interest. We present a case study of the downwelling longwave radiation for a groomed ski run under clear skies. a. Radiative transfer in a plane

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Tingting Gong, Steven Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

; Screen and Simmonds 2010a ; Serreze et al. 2012 ; Ghatak and Miller 2013 ), although these processes are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The latest climate models still underestimate the rate of Arctic sea ice melting ( Stroeve et al. 2012b ) and the Arctic SAT increase ( Koenigk et al. 2013 ), indicating that an important process is either missing or misrepresented by most models. Here, we present evidence that an increase in the downward infrared radiation (IR) associated with remote wave

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Changyong Cao, Kenneth Jarva, and Pubu Ciren

1. Introduction Radiances observed by the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) are assimilated directly in operational numerical weather prediction, and are used, in conjunction with measurements from other instruments, to calculate the atmosphere’s vertical temperature and moisture profiles, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH). Other retrievals include ocean surface temperatures, total atmospheric ozone levels, precipitable water, cloud height

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R. J. Bantges, H. E. Brindley, X. H. Chen, X. L. Huang, J. E. Harries, and J. E. Murray

infrared region of the spectrum to illustrate challenges associated with identifying robust changes in spectral outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in existing records. We make use of three different sets of observations; first the Interferometric Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS) on Nimbus-4 ( Hanel et al. 1972 ), second the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG) on Advanced Earth Observing Satellite 1 ( ADEOS I ; Kobayashi 1999 ), and finally the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument

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D. Carrer, S. Lafont, J.-L. Roujean, J.-C. Calvet, C. Meurey, P. Le Moigne, and I. F. Trigo

1. Introduction Land surface models (LSMs) used to monitor biophysical variables in hydrological and/or environmental applications require detailed information on the characteristics of the incoming solar or infrared irradiance. Together with atmospheric variables like air temperature, air humidity, precipitation, and wind speed, reliable hourly estimates of downwelling surface shortwave (DSSF) and longwave (DSLF) radiation fluxes are needed to drive the LSMs. These two quantities can be

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Lei Liu, Xuejin Sun, Feng Chen, Shijun Zhao, and Taichang Gao

sensors. SPIE Opt. Eng. , 32 , 1853 – 1895 . Peura, M. , Visa A. , and Kostamo P. , 1996 : A new approach to land-based cloud classification. Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition (ICPR’96), Vienna, Austria, IEEE Computer Society Press, 143–147 . Shaw, J. A. , and Thurairajah B. , 2003 : Short-term Arctic cloud statistics at NSA from the infrared cloud imager. Proc. 13th Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, Broomfield, CO, ARM. [Available online at

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