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William McLeish

this feature further. Nevertheless, previousstudies of the horizontal temperature structure ofocean water near the surface found a similar log-logslope versus wavenumber [about -5/3, see the discussion in McLeish, (1970)], and a conversion fromfrequency to wavenumber spectra through a constant advection rate indicates that the low-frequencyportion of the radiation temperature spectra is in accord with direct measurements within the water. The spectra contain a plateau at the

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Abraham H. Oort and Thomas H. Vonder Haar

Circulations Project at the GeophysicalFluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) in Princeton,N. J., while the oceanic data were also analyzedat GFDL. The first basic data set used consists of reflectedsolar and infrared radiation measurements from earthorbiting satellites taken during the years 1964 through1971. The albedo measurements of the atmosphere,earth system gave the information needed to calculatethe incoming, solar radiation, assuming a solar constantof 1360 W m-2. Combined with simultaneous

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Paul E. La Violette

Atlantic jet have large spatial variations that occur over a few days. Although anumber of investigators (Cheney, 1978; Cheney'andDoblar, 1982; Wannamaker, 1979; Gallagher et al.,198 la,b; Philippe and Harang, 1982) have used satelliteimagery in their studies of the Alboran Sea, very littlework has been done to associate quantitatively the surface radiation temperatures shown in the thermal imagery with either the subsurface temperatures or theregional flow. If the large day-to-day horizontal

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Cátia C. Azevedo, Carolina M. L. Camargo, José Alves, and Rui M. A. Caldeira

slightly lower standard deviations of the wind component (zonal and meridional) when compared with the 25-km wind products. The SST is one of the most important proxies of the oceanic warm wake. The ocean emits radiation in the infrared and microwave wavelengths. The amplitude of these wavelengths varies with the temperature of the ocean and therefore can be used to derive SST. EUMETSAT produces SST products in near-real-time from MetOp and AVHRR infrared sensors installed on board polar

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Paul C. Etter, Peter J. Lamb, and Diane H. Portis

VOLUME 17a. Radiation balance at the sea surface The radiation balance at the sea surface (QR) is frequently computed through the use of empirical formulas which consider the effects of the net absorbedsolar radiation (visual and near infrared) at the sea surface (Qs) and the effective back, or terrestrial, radiation(far infrared) at the sea surface (QB). Various formulations for calculating Qs and QB are in use (de Jong,1973). Reed (1976, 1977) and Reed and Halpem (1975)compared several of these

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William C. Patzert and Klaus Wyrtki

survey wouldbest be made along the coast between 26 and 28N. The aircraft used an airborne radiation thermometerto collect data showing the ocean's surface temperature variations, and 300 m airborne expendable bathythermographs to derive the ocean's vertical temperature variation. In addition to aiding the survey operation, the field-collected satellite infrared data were retained in digital form to aid the post-survey analyses.The analyses of the satellite and aircraft data define the region of

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Fred M. Vukovich, Bobby W. Crissman, Mark Bushnell, and W. J. King

1214 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOCUM-9Gulf Stream Boundary Eddies off the East Coast of FloridaFRED M. VUKOVICH, BOBBY W. CRISSMAN, MARK BUSHNELL1 AND W. J. KtNGResearch Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709(Manuscript received $ December 1978, in final form 11 June 1979) ABSTRACT Satellite infrared data and in situ data were used to study eddies off the east coast of Florida. Thesurface

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P. Flament, J. Firing, M. Sawyer, and C. Trefois

sur-face buoy temperature (at a depth of 0.5 1.0 m) willbe biased when extreme surface heat trapping occurs.The outgoing thermal infrared radiation, and the sen-sible and latent heat fluxes based on bulk parameter-izations, are all a function of water temperature andwill underestimate the cooling of the surface, unlessthe water temperature is measured within the trappinglayer. For the conditions discussed in section 3, thetotal bias would be 455 W m-2 for a 1 m s-] wind,of which 30 W m-2 would be

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Paul C. Etter

the sea surface The radiation balance at the sea surface (QR) is frequently computed through the use of empirical formulas which consider the effects of the net absorbedsolar radiation (visual and near infrared) at the seasurface (Qs) and the effective back, or terrestrial, radiation (far infrared) at the sea surface (QB). Various formulations for calculating Qs and QB arein use (deJong, 1973). Reed (1976, 1977) and Reedand Halpern (1975) compare several of these formulations against actual

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Anand Gnanadesikan and Whit G. Anderson

1. Introduction If ocean water were perfectly clear, solar radiation in the blue and near-UV bands would penetrate to great depths with e -folding scales exceeding 50 m ( Morel 1988 ; Morel et al. 2007 ). In general, however, the depth of penetration is much shallower than this ( Jerlov 1976 ) due to the presence of phytoplankton pigments, colored dissolved organic matter, and scatterers such as plankton, bacteria, viruses, and suspended particles. This paper considers how the additional

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