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Matteo Colli, Luca G. Lanza, Roy Rasmussen, and Julie M. Thériault

constant growth rate equal to 1.2 with the first node generally located at y = 0.5 mm. Table 1. Geometric characteristics and quality factors of the different grids adopted for the RANS simulation and LES. The airflow is solved by modeling the boundary layer regions of the flow (close to the ground and the windshield–snow gauge surfaces) with specific wall functions defined according to the variables solved (the turbulent kinematic viscosity ν T , k , and Ω). This is reasonable since the problem

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Younghyun Cho and Bernard A. Engel

: The Hydrology Laboratory Research Modeling System (HL-RMS)/Hydrology Laboratory Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM; NWS’s operational model for DMIP1/DMIP2) employ the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) lumped water balance model and the kinematic wave for hillslope–channel routing; it is a physically based conceptual model ( Koren et al. 2004 ). The Hydrologic Research Center Distributed Hydrologic Model (HRCDHM) has a method similar to HL-RMS; it is a catchment

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Jessica M. Erlingis, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Jeffrey B. Basara

varies both seasonally and regionally. The companion manuscript to this paper ( Erlingis et al. 2019 , hereafter Part I ) introduced the study domain, the flash flood database used, and the regions of interest. Kinematic trajectories were produced for 19 253 flood events and presented as they relate to the regional and seasonal mechanisms for producing heavy rainfall and flash flooding in the United States. In this manuscript, the moisture budget along the trajectories is analyzed along with the

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Marco Borga, Paolo Boscolo, Francesco Zanon, and Marco Sangati

distributed hydrologic model [Kinematic Local Excess Model (KLEM); Cazorzi and Dalla Fontana 1992 ]. The distributed model is based on availability of raster information of the landscape topography and of the soil and vegetation properties. In the model, the SCS-Curve Number (SCS-CN) procedure ( U.S. Department of Agriculture 1986 ) is applied on a grid-by-grid way for the spatially distributed representation of runoff generating processes, while a simple description of the drainage system response ( Da

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Bradford S. Barrett, Dominique Bastine Krieger, and Caroline P. Barlow

. Chiu, L. , Liu Z. , Rui H. , and Teng W. , 2006 : TRMM data and access tools . Earth Science Satellite Remote Sensing, J. Qu et al., Eds., Vol. 2, Data, Computational Processing, and Tools, Springer and Tsinghua University Press, 202–219 . Cox, J. A. W. , Steenburgh W. J. , Kingsmill D. E. , Shafer J. C. , Colle B. A. , Bousquet O. , Smull B. F. , and Cai H. , 2005 : The kinematic structure of a Wasatch Mountain winter storm during IPEX IOP3 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133

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James Montesi, Kelly Elder, R. A. Schmidt, and Robert E. Davis

transfer to a snow particle by radiation is represented by Q = πr 2 (1 − ζ ) S o , (3) where S o is total incident radiation flux, and ζ is particle albedo. The Nusselt number is defined as Nu = 1.79 + 0.606(Re 0.5 ) (4) for (0 < Re < 10), where Re is the Reynolds number that is written as where V is the ventilation speed, and υ is the kinematic viscosity of air. Water vapor diffusivity in still air ( D ), kinematic viscosity of air ( υ

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Yingying Chen, Kun Yang, Degang Zhou, Jun Qin, and Xiaofeng Guo

surface with bluff roughness elements, and a higher z 0 m usually corresponds to a lower z 0 h . Following this reasoning, Yang et al. (2002) correlated z 0 h to a physical height ( h T ), which is related to a height to separate the fully turbulent layer and the transitional layer. The height h T is determined by the critical Reynolds number (Re crit ): where Re crit = 70 in this study, ν is the fluid kinematic viscosity, and u * is the friction velocity. For a surface with

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Philip Marsh and John R. Gyakum

was developed for Environment Canada's operational radars in the southern Mackenzie basin, while the IPIX radar was used to provide datasets on the detailed kinematic description (e.g., vertical structure, wind fields) of the cloud systems in the central MRB. Numerical weather prediction: Gridded model data from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) operational forecast model for the CAGES period were archived ( MacKay et al. 2003 ). This archive included higher-resolution (10 km

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Paul J. Neiman, F. Martin Ralph, Benjamin J. Moore, and Robert J. Zamora

between SBJs, ARs, and the precipitation they generated across the northern CV and Sierra foothills. Neiman et al. (2013a) utilized a wind profiler at Sloughhouse, California (SHS; Fig. 1 , Table 1 ), as the primary observational anchor to identify the strongest SBJ events over the northern CV during a multiyear period to investigate mean kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the composite SBJ and simultaneously occurring AR and to ascertain the composite orographic precipitation

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F. Martin Ralph, Paul J. Neiman, David E. Kingsmill, P. Ola G. Persson, Allen B. White, Eric T. Strem, Edmund D. Andrews, and Ronald C. Antweiler

. All of the stream gauges in the Santa Cruz Mountains have 45–50 yr of records dating back to between 1950 and 1955. Many other operational observing systems were also used: hourly surface observations from airports and buoys, 3-hourly data from ships (sites shown in Fig. 3 ), 12-hourly thermodynamic and kinematic profiles from rawinsondes, and the WSR-88D at Mount Umunhum (MUX) near San Francisco monitored the evolution of landfalling precipitation features and their associated radial

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