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Emmanuel M. Attua and Joshua B. Fisher

better understand and address the complex land-use system of the area and develop improved land-use management strategies that could better balance urban expansion and ecological conservation. This will help forestall ecological and socioeconomic challenges commonly associated with unplanned urban land development, before they could attain overwhelming proportions ( López et al. 2001 ). Urban land-cover change and modeling techniques The study of land-cover change is an important topic

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N. Devaraju, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré, Benjamin Quesada, and G. Bala

1. Introduction The response of climate to biophysical effects of land-use-induced land-cover change (LULCC) is highly heterogeneous and can either be warming or cooling depending on the location of change and the land cover transition. Many observational ( Lee et al. 2011 ; Luyssaert et al. 2014 ; Li et al. 2015 ; Alkama and Cescatti 2016 ; Khanna et al. 2017 ) and modeling studies on LULCC effects ( Bala et al. 2007 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré 2010 ; Bright et al

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J. Winckler, C. H. Reick, and J. Pongratz

to as nonlocal effects. In the past, two types of studies have been performed to quantify and understand the effects of LCC: studies investigating plausible LCC scenarios and studies investigating idealized extensive LCC. The first type investigated the climate effects of plausible LCC scenarios such as the historical evolution of land-use-induced LCC or future LCC (e.g., Pitman et al. 2009 ; Boysen et al. 2014 ), based on scenarios derived from socioeconomic models (e.g., Hurtt et al. 2011

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Clint Aegerter, Jun Wang, Cui Ge, Suat Irmak, Robert Oglesby, Brian Wardlow, Haishun Yang, Jingshen You, and Martha Shulski

1. Introduction The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified the effect of land-use and land-cover change as one of the largest uncertainties in global climate models ( IPCC 2013 ). Numerous types of land-cover changes, such as those related to agriculture, deforestation, and urbanization, have been shown to have an impact on several atmospheric variables, including temperatures, humidity, and precipitation ( Mahmood et al. 2014 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ). The addition of

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

immediate and can be treated as “tactical.” There is a more gradual response, akin to climatic change, that can also be a response of water cycle to land cover changes. Such a change can be called “strategic” and is described through the following example. Presence of a dam (here used interchangeably with artificial reservoirs) can facilitate urbanization both on the upstream and downstream side. Construction of dams is still one of the socioeconomic solutions that are adapted by most developing

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Stefan Erasmi, Pavel Propastin, Martin Kappas, and Oleg Panferov

Niño events in humid tropical regions are recorded by Nagai et al. (2007) and others, but there is only sparse evidence about the spatial patterns of land cover–type specific responses of the vegetated surface to the major recent El Niño events (e.g., Dessay et al. 2004 ). Satellite remote sensing has been widely used for monitoring vegetation dynamics in general and ENSO-caused vegetation variability in particular. Most of the recent studies on vegetation monitoring at global or regional scales

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Dorian Speakman

. Horticulturalists focused on long-term strategic measures such as raising the height of shelter belts, which were seen as part of good practice. However, despite two adverse weather events in one season, they found that the majority of farmers did not make any long-term adaptive investment, as they felt that the frequency of adverse weather did not justify the outlay. In England, those farmers badly affected by flooding in summer 2007 were considering permanent changes to land use on the floodplain as well as

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Yan Li, Lijuan Zhu, Xinyi Zhao, Shuangcheng Li, and Yan Yan

improve the classification results. The combined use of nightlight and population data, in addition to land use and land cover (LULC) type ( Gallo et al. 1999 ; Peterson et al. 1999 ); surface brightness temperature and Google Earth imagery ( Ren and Ren 2011 ); spatial land use and population gridded data ( Fujibe 2009 ); and satellite data such as Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) ( He et al. 2007 ) have provided more information for station classification. However, to

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David B. Lobell, Céline Bonfils, and Jean-Marc Faurès

1. Introduction Efforts to anticipate the impacts of climate change on crop production and food security depend critically on projections of future climate in agricultural regions. General circulation models (GCMs) commonly used to make these projections consider changes in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other well-mixed greenhouse gases, and many also consider changes in anthropogenic aerosol levels. However, few consider climate forcing from land-use changes, which

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Josh Durkee, Ahmed M. Degu, Faisal Hossain, Rezaul Mahmood, Jesse Winchester, and Themis Chronis

common thread of such anecdotes claims physical attenuation of an easterly moving convective storm near the LBL and reintensification after passing LBL downstream toward Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Fig . 1. Location of study area and LBL, Kentucky. Given the untested nature of the anecdotes, this study explored the role of the LBL and its surrounding land features on mesoscale storm systems. Land use and land cover (LULC) changes create heterogeneities in surface roughness, soil moisture, and vegetation

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