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David A. Randall, Harshvardhan, and Donald A. Dazlich

maximum over land in warm rainy regions, such as the tropics andthe midlatitude summer continents, and an ~arly morning maximum over the oceans far from land. Thestatistical significance of these model results is demonstrated using a chi-square test. The observed diurnalvariation of temperature in the oceanic tropical middle troposphere is also realistically simulated. Encouraged by these results, the model was used to investigate the causes of the diurnal cycle of precipitationover the oceans. For

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J. L. Eastman, R. A. Pielke, and D. J. McDonald

, diffusivity, temperature profile, and moisture profile further add to the complexity, as well as the number of degrees of freedom employed in initializing a model. The soil model used in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is directly dependent on curves derived by Clapp and Hornberger (1978) . The thermal and hydrologic conductivities deduced from these curves for different soil types show standard deviations of an amplitude similar to the values at a given point on the curve. Given this

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Yu Du, Richard Rotunno, and Fuqing Zhang

using observations ( Abbs and Physick 1992 ; Finkele et al. 1995 ; Gille et al. 2005 ), numerical simulations ( Cautenet and Rosset 1989 ; Du and Rotunno 2015 , 2018 ), and theoretical studies ( Haurwitz 1947 ; Rotunno 1983 , hereafter R83 ; Qian et al. 2009 , hereafter Q09 ; Jiang 2012a ). The sea–land breeze has several components including the sea-breeze circulation, the sea-breeze gravity current, the sea-breeze front, Kelvin–Helmholtz billows, and a convective internal boundary layer

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Albert D. Anderson

developing from it a mathematical fallout model for land-surface bursts(the D model) and then by using this model to predict fallout properties for nuclear tests. From a comparison of the predictions with observed test data, it is concluded that the new theory, despite certainidealizations, is useful for fallout computation.1. IntroductionThe fallout process from a land-surface nuclearburst is a complicated nuclear-thermodynamic-hydrodynamic-meteorological phenomenon in which radioactive particles are

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D. H. Staelin, A. L. Cassel, K. F. Kunzi, R. L. Pettyjohn, R. K. L. Poon, P. W. Rosenkranz, and J. W. Waters

profile by less than a few degrees Centigrade. These effects are evident ascold spots at 53.65 GHz and can be identified by virtue of their small spatial extent, in contrast to smoothvariations characteristic of normal atmospheric temperature fields. These effects at 53.65 GHz are sufficiently well correlated with inferred liquid water abundances that they can be used for detecting majorstorm systems over both land and sea.1. Introduction Since launch on 11 December 1972 the Nimbus 5(Nimbus E

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Christopher Lee and Mark Ian Richardson

with the six lander or probe measurements shown in the figure. Results from both the DISORT flux solver and TWOSTR flux solver are shown in the figure, and both are in good agreement over all angles, diverging most significantly at the subsolar point (where they differ by about 5%). Fig . 7. Downward solar flux at the surface calculated as a function of solar zenith angle using DISORT (solid) and TWOSTR (dotted). Also plotted as dashed lines are lines representing 1%–4% of the TOA flux as a

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O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, Paul Ginoux, and Brent Holben

application of atmospheric corrections to remove the aerosol effects. Use of satellite observations is the most efficient way to determine aerosol physical properties on the temporal and spatial scales needed to understand and monitor their effects on the earth–atmosphere system. Traditional aerosol satellite-based retrievals have been limited to ocean areas that are dark in the visible and near IR ( Stowe et al. 1997 ; Mishchenko et al. 1999 ). For land areas, the surface contribution to the reflected

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J. David Neelin and Ning Zeng

implicitly by the moisture closure and could be calculated postsolution using (4.29) . e. Parameterization of surface fluxes Bulk formulas for sensible heat over both land and ocean and for evaporation over ocean regions are where T s denotes the actual surface temperature, and T a and q a denote temperature and moisture in the atmospheric boundary layer just above the surface. The notation T a is used to distinguish between near-surface and surface values in temperature; in variables for which

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Man Kin Mak and John E. Walsh

xvarying between q-1 and --1, and b~.,x the amplitudeof the surface buoyancy wave. The major physicalfeatures of interest are the time variations of the staticstability and of the eddy coefficient. These are pre ,~. Neumonn 8~ Mohrer -4 -8 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 ! (hrs) Fro. 2. Neumann and Mahrer's (1971) land-sea temperaturedifferences computed using the land temperatures at 0 km(solid line) and 20 km

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Johnny C. L. Chan and Xudong Liang

, the evaporation from a large area under the TC circulation is extremely important for supporting the convective activity in the central region of the cyclone. Tuleya and Kurihara (1978 , hereafter TK78) simulated TC landfall using a three-dimensional, primitive equation model and investigated the effects of land friction and evaporation through three experiments: friction on land without evaporation, smooth land without evaporation, and increase in surface roughness with evaporation. Their study

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