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Ronald B. Smith

parameters of the cloud and collectionmethod, it is possible to estimate the collection efficiency by the "ice stick." Consider the following typicalvalues:particle concentrationparticle radiusparticle volumeprojected groove areaaircraft speedcollection periodswept volumeparticles collected (assuming 100% )ideal collected volume of iceactual collected volume of iceefficiency This small collection efficiency wasthe Langmuir stopping distance 2 pa2 L- V 9 n1 cm

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Peter P. Sullivan, Jeffrey C. Weil, Edward G. Patton, Harmen J. J. Jonker, and Dmitrii V. Mironov

turbulence are determined by an inflection-point instability centered near the canopy top ( Finnigan et al. 2009 ), and surface-wave-generated Langmuir circulations populate the upper ocean ( Sullivan and McWilliams 2010 ), to mention a few. Because of the challenges in observing and simulating stably stratified weak turbulence, the coherent structures in the SBL are less studied, and likely more variable, than those in the convective and near-neutral PBL. In the very stable boundary layer characterized

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David C. Fritts, Ling Wang, and Joseph A. Werne

( Thorpe 1985 ), and in multiple numerical studies of KHI for various flow parameters ( Caulfield and Peltier 1994 ; Palmer et al. 1994 , 1996 ; Fritts et al. 1996 , 2003 , 2012 ; Werne and Fritts 1999 , 2001 ; Smyth et al. 2005 ; Werne et al. 2005 ). It also bears a close resemblance to Langmuir circulations in the ocean mixed layer, to roll vortices observed in the convective boundary layer, and to the primary instability accounting for GW breaking at sufficiently large GW amplitudes (e

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Edward R. Mansell, Conrad L. Ziegler, and Eric C. Bruning

.75 × 10 −2 m s −2 at the center of a spheroidal region in the center of the domain (horizontal radii of 8 km and vertical radius of 1 km, vertically centered at 1 km), dropping smoothly to zero at the edges as the square of the cosine function (as is typical for thermal bubble perturbations). The forcing turns off automatically at points where downward vertical motions exceed −0.1 m s −1 to allow downdrafts to exist in the forcing region (e.g., allowing horizontal roll circulations to form

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

sigma levels wherein 20 levels were assigned within the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere. The Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM; Martin 2000 ) is run using a horizontal resolution of 12 km with 60 sigma- z vertical layers. A fine vertical spacing (0.5 m) is used in the upper 10 m to resolve the large diurnal warming features ( Shinoda et al. 2013 ). The vertical mixing is modified to include Stokes drift currents provided by a wave model and effects of Langmuir circulations ( Smith et al. 2013 ). d

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