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Nicholas Dawson, Patrick Broxton, and Xubin Zeng

under different environmental conditions. Specifically, we evaluate Noah as used in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Cosgrove et al. 2003 ) against observations from the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) network. In NLDAS, there is no assimilation of snow data from an external source (such as the method for some operational NCEP initializations), and so the evolution of snow density is reflective of that predicted by Noah. While snow

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Lindsey Hayden and Chuntao Liu

. , 116 , D20209 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016076 . 10.1029/2011JD016076 Leon , D. C. , Z. Wang , and D. Liu , 2008 : Climatology of drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds based on 1 year of data from CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D00A14 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009835 . 10.1029/2008JD009835 Lietzke , C. E. , C. Deser , and T. H. Vonder Harr , 2001 : Evolutionary structure of the

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William P. Kustas, John H. Prueger, J. Ian MacPherson, Mengistu Wolde, and Fuqin Li

, and carbon fluxes at multiple towers sites, as well as mean and turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) properties with aircraft, ground-based lidar, and balloon sounding observations ( Kustas et al. 2003 , 2005 ). With the WC study area being the primary focus of SMACEX, a network of METFLUX towers was distributed over the WC area to obtain representative areal sampling (see Fig. 1 ). There were 14 flux towers located in 12 fields, with 6 being in corn- and 6 in soybean fields. The National

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Kjetil Schanke Aas, Kjersti Gisnås, Sebastian Westermann, and Terje Koren Berntsen

the Arctic to climate change . Ecol. Monogr. , 79 , 523 – 555 , doi: 10.1890/08-2025.1 . Melvold, K. , and Skaugen T. , 2013 : Multiscale spatial variability of lidar-derived and modeled snow depth on Hardangervidda, Norway . Ann. Glaciol. , 54 , 273 – 281 , doi: 10.3189/2013AoG62A161 . Mohr, M. , 2008 : New routines for gridding of temperature and precipitation observations for “seNorge.no.” Met.No Note 08/2008, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, 40 pp. [Available online at http

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John Pomeroy, Chad Ellis, Aled Rowlands, Richard Essery, Janet Hardy, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and Jean Emmanuel Sicart

. 1975 ), productivity ( Eagleson 2002 ), and stage of succession ( Ross et al. 1986 ; Parker et al. 2002 ). It is possible to link the canopy transmittance of shortwave radiation to laser remote sensing observations of forest structure ( Parker et al. 2002 ). For discontinuous stands, shortwave irradiance into gaps and the north edge of gaps (in the Northern Hemisphere) is much greater than that under more shaded parts of the canopy ( Satterlund 1983 ). The previously cited literature suggests the

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Adam Winstral, Tobias Jonas, and Nora Helbig

-resolution elevation data) or on derived statistical relationships (e.g., the relationship between forecast climate variables and finer-scaled observations or products). The two nondynamic approaches as described here are often grouped together as “statistical” solutions ( Benestad et al. 2008 ). The nondynamic solutions have far lower computational demands and can potentially account for forecast biases using data and methods extrinsic to the forecasting model(s). For these reasons, nondynamical approaches remain

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Melissa L. Wrzesien, Michael T. Durand, Tamlin M. Pavelsky, Ian M. Howat, Steven A. Margulis, and Laurie S. Huning

traditional method; a new, advanced method; and an operational approach. We acknowledge and discuss scaling issues related to assuming point observations are representative of grid-scale SWE, below. However, we argue that the range of values provided by the reference datasets represents the most likely estimate of range-scale SWE for the Sierra Nevada. We assess five globally available gridded SWE datasets derived from both models and remote sensing measurements, with resolutions ranging from 24 to 80 km

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James A. Smith, Andrew J. Miller, Mary Lynn Baeck, Peter A. Nelson, Gary T. Fisher, and Katherine L. Meierdiercks

rates over the Moores Run catchment for a period of approximately 30 min. Analyses of the 13 June 2003 storm, which are based on volume scan reflectivity observations from the Sterling, Virginia, Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar, are used to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of flash flood–producing rainfall and to examine the structure and evolution of flash flood–producing storms. Storm properties are compared with those of five other flash flood

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Matthias Falk, R. D. Pyles, S. L. Ustin, K. T. Paw U, L. Xu, M. L. Whiting, B. L. Sanden, and P. H. Brown

from space. This study introduces a model framework for predicting current and future water and energy fluxes within spatial scales usable by growers and land managers. Many investigations conducted over the past decades established empirical relationships from ground-based observations, such as eddy covariance surface flux studies. These relationships were widely used to develop and improve surface–vegetation–atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models. However, to extend any type of surface measurement

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Adam Winstral, Danny Marks, and Robert Gurney

high-resolution lidar snow-depth data of 15–40 m and 7–45 m at several 1 km 2 Colorado research sites. The longer scale break found in this study is indicative of similarities existing over greater distances. This observation, however, may in fact be related to the differences in the spacing of observations (10-m model elements and nominal 1.5-m lidar spacing) rather than differences in the snow distributions. There is insufficient data in the 10-m product to adequately resolve scale breaks of

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