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Daniel B. Thompson and Paul E. Roundy

1. Introduction Tropical convection affects circulation patterns in the midlatitudes by redistributing mass, which results in large-scale overturning circulations and Rossby wave trains that extend eastward and poleward from the source convection ( Sardeshmukh and Hoskins 1988 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ), a planetary-scale, eastward-propagating pattern of winds and deep convection near the equator, has been correlated with anomalies in the

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Charles Jones, Jon Gottschalck, Leila M. V. Carvalho, and Wayne Higgins

extreme precipitation. Third, previous studies have demonstrated that the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1994 ; Lau and Waliser 2005 ; Zhang 2005 ) influences the occurrences of extreme precipitation in the tropics and extratropics of both hemispheres ( Mo and Higgins 1998a ; Higgins et al. 2000a ; Jones 2000 ; Bond and Vecchi 2003 ; Carvalho et al. 2004 ; Jones et al. 2004a ; Liebmann et al. 2004 ; Barlow et al. 2005 ; Donald et al. 2006 ; Jeong et al. 2008 ). Since the

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Xiouhua Fu and Bin Wang

1. Introduction The active and break phases of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) strongly modulate the development of severe synoptic weather systems: For example, hurricanes ( Maloney and Hartmann 2000 ; Bessafi and Wheeler 2006 ) and monsoon depressions ( Chen and Weng 1999 ; Goswami et al. 2003 ). The recurrent nature of MJO with a period of 30–60 days ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Yasunari 1979 ) offers an opportunity to forecast the active/break phase of this low-frequency wave with a

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Vassili Kitsios, Terence J. O’Kane, and Nedjeljka Žagar

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is an eastward-propagating intraseasonal mode of variability, with its variance concentrated in the 30–90-day time-scale band. It is a physical phenomenon first characterized by Madden and Julian (1971) , involving interactions between tropical deep convection focused within the Maritime Continent, moisture, and atmospheric dynamics ( Zhang 2005 ). Since this initial study there has been a vast array of research into this physical phenomenon

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1972 ) is a dominant feature in the tropical ocean–atmosphere, linking weather and climate variability. Theories and observational characteristics of MJO and its influence on tropical cyclones, midlatitude weather, monsoon variability, air–sea interaction, relationships with atmospheric angular momentum and El Niño, and predictability have been reported in a large number of previous studies. [See Lau and Waliser (2005) for

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

complex land–sea contrast and orography in the MC also exerts effects on the prominent tropical phenomenon such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an intraseasonal fluctuation ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ), during its passage through the MC ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Sobel et al. 2010 ; Oh et al. 2012 , 2013 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Hagos et al. 2016 ; Kim et al. 2017 ; Zhang and Ling 2017 ). Matthews (2000) and Hsu and Lee (2005) reveal

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Stephanie A. Henderson and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction Intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere is primarily governed by the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ). The MJO has a period of approximately 30–60 days and is typically characterized by enhanced tropical convection flanked by suppressed convection that propagates eastward from the west Indian Ocean to the central Pacific, with a tropical circumglobal signal in the upper-level winds. The convective heating anomalies can generate large

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Guosen Chen

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), named after Madden and Julian (1971 , 1972 ), is the dominant mode of tropical atmospheric variability ( Zhang 2005 ). The MJO can significantly affect the global weather and climate systems ( Zhang 2013 ), bridging the weather and climate and providing foundation for “seamless prediction” ( Hurrell et al. 2009 ; Brown et al. 2012 ). One way for MJO to affect the global weather and climate systems is through exciting teleconnections. The

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Awolou Sossa, Brant Liebmann, Ileana Bladé, Dave Allured, Harry H. Hendon, Pete Peterson, and Andrew Hoell

, including the Sahel semiarid region, an area that suffers from periodic droughts ( Rodríguez-Fonseca et al. 2015 ), a lack of rainfall is often (but not always) the more serious issue. In the wetter climates to the south, however, excess rainfall is usually the problem. In particular, short-term excess amounts cause local flooding, resulting in crop failure and infrastructure damage as the soil becomes saturated, because dams and other water retention structures are rare. The Madden–Julian oscillation

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Sally L. Lavender and Adrian J. Matthews

shorter time-scale variability may be linked to fluctuations in the advection of moisture from over the Atlantic to the Sahel ( Mounier and Janicot 2004 ), which may be associated with the quasi-biweekly zonal dipole ( Mounier et al. 2008 ). The longer time-scale variability is now thought to be associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Matthews 2004a ) and associated intraseasonal variability of the Asian summer monsoon ( Janicot et al. 2009 ). The MJO is the dominant component of

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