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Qi Zhang, Kunde Yang, and Qiulong Yang

, sites A1–A3 have larger σ than A4–A6, respectively. This may derive from the influence of the nearby coast ( Zhu and Atkinson 2005 ; Atkinson and Zhu 2006 ). It is also worth noting that our focus areas are mainly located in the northwestern Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. Several previous studies have shown that the Mediterranean Sea ( Magaldi et al. 2016 ; Gürbüz 2016 ) and the Arabian Sea ( Pasricha et al. 2002 ; Zhang et al. 2016a ) are also hot spots for evaporation ducts. We plan to

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Maxime Ballarotta, Clément Ubelmann, Marine Rogé, Florent Fournier, Yannice Faugère, Gérald Dibarboure, Rosemary Morrow, and Nicolat Picot

Udintsev region (64°–41°S, 164°–121°W) and the Mediterranean Sea (30°–47°N, 6°W–37°E). The temporal coverage is the period from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2017. For the quantitative assessment, we focus on the 1-yr period from 1 January to 31 December 2017. In the following section, we focus on the evaluation of the SSH maps produced for the Gulf Stream system. We refer the reader to the online supplementary material for the assessments of the DOI in the Kuroshio, the Udintsev and the Mediterranean

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Jamie D. Shutler, Peter E. Land, Jean-Francois Piolle, David K. Woolf, Lonneke Goddijn-Murphy, Frederic Paul, Fanny Girard-Ardhuin, Bertrand Chapron, and Craig J. Donlon

verify the integrated net flux tool, the year 2000 T09 climatology data were linearly interpolated to a 1° × 1° grid and then provided as the input to the tool. The integrated net flux tool used the T09 ice normalization (see the appendix ). The resultant net air–sea CO 2 flux for the open ocean region was −1.39 GtC yr −1 with an additional −0.17 GtC yr −1 attributed to missing data, large lakes, the Mediterranean Sea, and coastal and shelf seas, giving a total of −1.56 GtC yr −1 . The

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Xavier André, Bertrand Moreau, and Serge Le Reste

depth cannot be accurately determined. This also reduces its use in closed seas, where the risk of beaching is high. For example, the transmission of a typical Argo profile—that is, about 100 conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) samples over a range of 2000 m—takes 6–8 h via the Argos-2 system to guarantee a good reception rate ( Le Reste and Gould 2011 ). In noisy areas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, the transmission may last 10 h or more. Finally, the energy consumption due to the Argos-2

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Jean-Michel Brankart and Pierre Brasseur

: 8- W 3- W 2- E ?o E 12- E 17- ELongitude FIG. 3. Hodzon~l d~s~dbufion o~th~ casts o~thc ~D2 databaseFIG. 1. Finite-element mesh computed to solve the variationalproblem (spline analysis) on the western Mediterranean Sea.mensional problems and maximum second-order derivatives that are allowed in the variational principle(m = 2). For example, to cover the western Mediterranean,the finite-element mesh of Fig. I has been generated

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P. Marsaleix, F. Auclair, and C. Estournel

salinity equations, but under the condition that boundary baroclinic velocities are themselves reliable. Nudging boundary layers can help to control model with external fields but, under outward propagation, frontal conflicts may appear if tracers are strongly restored toward external information. All these recommendations were used in our recent studies of the Mediterranean Sea ( Estournel et al. 2005 ; Ulses et al. 2005 ; Petrenko et al. 2005 ; Dufau-Julliand et al. 2004 ) and helped us to build

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Haoyu Jiang and Ge Chen

seas such as the Mediterranean and Gulf of Mexico since swells cannot propagate into the enclosed seas. Moreover, some regional features of the wind field can be found having a clear impact on the patterns of swell probability. Examples are the coast of Namibia, southern Brazil, and Western Australia. b. Wind sea and swell significant wave heights Following the method proposed in section 2 , seasonal maps of H , H s , and H w were made. To save space, only the maps for DJF and JJA are shown in

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C. Jamet, S. Thiria, C. Moulin, and M. Crepon

τ (865) are known exactly and fixed, the control variables being the OCs, namely C and b 0 and the imagery refractive index m i . In all of the experiments presented below, the first guess value of C was set at 0.2 mg m −3 , which corresponds to an average value for case 1 waters, especially in the Mediterranean Sea, and b 0 was set at 0.285 ( m i was set at 0.002). Figure 6 shows the scatterplot of the MLP-computed versus desired ρ cor (MLP-computed ρ cor is the ρ cor computed

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S. J. Holgate, P. L. Woodworth, P. R. Foden, and J. Pugh

, one needs as complete as possible a set of “far field” information. If the distance between the far-field gauge and coastline is large, then a warning system will, in principle, have the tsunami travel time between the two points in which to issue an alert. However, in many regions (e.g., Mediterranean, North Sea, Caribbean) the travel time could be short and it is important that no other major delays are introduced in between tsunami measurement and receipt of data by warning centers. This report

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Matthieu Le Hénaff, Pierre De Mey, Baptiste Mourre, and Pierre-Yves Le Traon

( Andersen 1999 ). The value of 3.9 cm for nadir sea level observation error is considered realistic in our study where tides are not present: it is very close to values of the error budget found for new processed data from current altimeters of the coastal zone in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea where tides are of very low amplitude ( Bouffard 2007 ). Note that nadir altimeters are almost insensitive to platform roll: the radar footprint on the ground would just be translated by a few meters, hardly

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