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Guenter Warnecke, Edith I. Reed, Walter B. Fowler, Earl R. Kreins, Lewis J. Allison, and Jaques E. Blamont

conditions along the meridionalsatellite track could be expected, and also over oceanicregions where the background is relatively homogeneous.Data obtained over arctic regions, not presented herein,indicate that the albedo is high in all wavelengths, andthe variations of the observed radiance are generallyless than 20%. 1) Low light levels. On orbit 507, 1 September 1967,OGO-4 on its near-midnight passage went southwardalong 21.9E across the Mediterranean Sea, passed theNorth African coast near Marsa

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Marcus Löfverström, Rodrigo Caballero, Johan Nilsson, and Gabriele Messori

the zonalization of the jet. Section 5 provides a time-varying perspective on the relation between wave breaking and nonlinear reflection. Section 6 discusses the relative roles of topography and sea ice boundary conditions and the impact of horizontal resolution for our results, while section 7 deals with the response of the Atlantic storm track. Some further implications of the results are discussed in section 8 , and section 9 summarizes our conclusions. 2. Experiments and methods a

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Sarah D. Brooks, Tim D. Jickells, Peter S. Liss, Daniel C. O. Thornton, and Renyi Zhang

marine sediments has been evident for many years (e.g., Griffin et al. 1968 ). There has been evidence since the 1960s that contaminants from land can reach the oceans via the atmosphere, for instance radionuclides from atmospheric weapons testing (e.g., Druffel 1981 ) and persistent organic pollutants (e.g., Aguilar et al. 2002 ). However, the Sea/Air Exchange Program (SEAREX) marked the first major coordinated study of the long-range atmospheric transport of biogeochemically important material

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K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, J. Remiszewska, M. Witek, E. A. Reid, J. S. Reid, A. Bucholtz, and B. Holben

coast approximately 50 km northeast of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and away from the primary city plume. This location allowed for studies of the aerosol properties over land in the proximity of both the desert and the Persian Gulf. The strong sea–land-breeze circulation is a regular phenomenon in the costal zone of the Persian Gulf in the absence of strong large-scale flow ( Zhu and Atkinson 2004 ). During the sea breeze strong winds often lead to local mineral dust production. Low humidity

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Xiaomin Xia, Jianjun Wang, Jiabin Ji, Jiexia Zhang, Liqi Chen, and Rui Zhang

; Peter et al. 2014 ). Marine aerosols have two main sources: one is marine particles, and the other is the crustal input from land carried by wind ( Kellogg and Griffin 2006 ). Marine aerosols originate from the marine environment through “bubble bursting”; they may contain sea salt, marine organic particles, marine microorganisms, and fragments of marine life ( Blanchard 1983 ; Pósfai et al. 2003 ; Leck and Bigg 2008 ). Unlike terrestrial aerosols, which originate from soil and mainly contain Gram

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Joseph C. K. Huang

1164 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~.v~E35Response of the NCAR General Circulation Model to North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies Josm,~t C. K. HUANG~Scripps Institullan of Oceanography, Uni~rs~ty of California, San Diego, Za Jails 92039(Manuscript received 25 July 1977, in final form 24 February 1978)ABSTRACT The general circulation model (GCM) of the

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H. E. Gerber

~~oI I I I I I I20 40 60 BO I00RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) FIG. 8. Values of the imaginary index of the maritime particlesinverted with Mie theory from measured particle size distributions and o~0. Different data points represent measurements in theAtlantic Ocean (r), in the Mediterranean Sea (r), and near theharbors of Rota and Piraeus (0).since it is likely that the systematic counter errorsare less

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Steven Businger and Joost A. Businger

marine cyclone. Part II: Mesoscale structure and diagnostics. Mon. Wea. Rev , 121 , 2177 – 2199 . NOAA , 1991 : The Halloween nor'easter of 1991. East coast of the United States… Maine to Florida and Puerto Rico. Natural Disaster Survey Report, NOAA/NWS, Silver Spring, MD, 62 pp . Rasmussen , E. , and C. Zick , 1987 : A subsynoptic vortex over the Mediterranean Sea with some resemblance to polar lows. Tellus , 39 , 408 – 425 . Shapiro , M. A. , L. S. Fedor , and T. Hampel

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C. S. Ramage

thecoast, with the movement inshore of the sea-breeze convergence), produces a morning precipitation-maximum. Anafternoon maximum develops inland in the normal way.The converse is not necessarily true, since morning maximado occur in extra-monsoonal regions. It may be that inmany of these cases (as Neumann (1951) has shown forthe eastern Mediterranean) local topography is an important factor.2. No explanation has been found for what must be aconsiderable diurnal variation in both the speed of flowand

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W. Lawrence Gates

-level atmospheric general circulation model using the surface boundary conditions of sea-surface temperature, ice-sheet topography and surface albedo assembled by CLIMAP for 18 000 years before present. These conditions respresent an approximate doubling of the ice-covered surface area of the earth~ a 1-C decrease of the average se~-surfacetemperature, and an increase of the average surface albedo from 0.14 to 0.22. Compared with the simulationof present July conditions, the ice-age atmosphere is found to have

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