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T. J. Wallington, J. H. Seinfeld, and J. R. Barker

, techniques based on measuring changes in capacitance or resistance of materials when exposed to humid air or changes in the thermal conductivity of air have been developed to measure humidity. Satellite measurements of atmospheric water content started in the 1970s. Atmospheric water vapor concentrations are now routinely monitored from satellite observations using infrared sounders and microwave radiometers. The global coverage provided by satellite observations, which started in about 1980, has enabled

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

) of “real observations” to evaluate radiative modeling results. At the same time, it was realized that observations were needed to evaluate the accuracy of cloud properties that were being predicted by models and that there was much work needed to improve GCMs in this regard. As discussed by Stokes (2016 , chapter 2), these influences led the DOE to direct the preparation of a proposal for the incipient USGCRP. Stokes (2016 , chapter 2) discusses the preparation of the initial DOE proposal

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

temperatures, rainfall, solar radiation, winds, and humidity) and farm management information to examine the status of agricultural systems, provide a framework to monitor crop progress, identify problem areas and opportunities, and contribute to a multifaceted monitoring system with machine-based learning incorporating remote sensing and crop model outputs. Meteorological systems can feed these crop models with weather and climate information including traditional surface-based observations as well as

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Joseph J. Michalsky and Charles N. Long

) pyranometer has the desirable property that its offset is nearly zero ( Michalsky et al. 2003 ). The Eppley PSP is now only used for the GHI backup measurement to the BSRN-preferred component summation. The preference for summation of observations from two radiometers [Eq. (16-1) ] versus a single pyranometer measurement is explained in chapters 5 and 6 of Vignola et al. (2012) . In essence, the uncertainties are reduced by at least a factor of 50% when using the component sum for global irradiance even

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

seeding of stratocumulus and cumulus clouds over the Cascades. In each case, enhanced in-cloud ice particle concentrations, transitions in ice particle habits, increases in Ag concentrations in surface snow, and increases in snowfall were observed in space and time consistent with expectations based on ice particle plume trajectory calculations. Marwitz and Stewart (1981) and Prasad et al. (1989) reported similar aircraft observations in Sierra Nevada cumuli, as did Prasad et al. (1989

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Ronald B. Smith

conditions to occur. First, the ridge must be wide enough to give a ^ > 1 so that gravity and fluid buoyancy play a role. Second, it usually requires a ridge higher than 500 m, but the exact required height depends on the wind and stability environment. Aloft, it helps to have a stable inversion or wind reversal in midtroposphere. Interest in downslope winds was stimulated in the atmospheric science community by the aircraft observations of the Boulder windstorm in 1972 ( Fig. 20-13 ) by Lilly and

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

observations of the free atmosphere provided the initial conditions needed for numerical weather prediction; accurate and stable discretization schemes were developed. Finally, increasingly powerful digital computers provided a practical means of carrying out the prodigious calculations needed to forecast changes in the weather. At the time of the First World War, computational weather forecasting was impractical for at least four reasons. First, the observations of the three-dimensional structure of the

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