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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, and David Erickson

Introduction Carbon monoxide is a key component of the oceanic photochemical system and it also influences the oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere. Within mixed layer seawater the molecule functions as an intermediate during the photolytic breakdown of dissolved organics ( Mopper et al. 1991 ; Mopper and Kieber 2002 ). In the gas phase, CO is involved in regulation of the hydroxyl radical ( Logan et al. 1981 ; Crutzen and Zimmerman 1991 ). Surface ocean contributions to the global

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Michael E. Mann, Ed Gille, Jonathan Overpeck, Wendy Gross, Raymond S. Bradley, Frank T. Keimig, and Malcolm K. Hughes

-scale patterns of climate variability during past centuries ( Mann et al., 2000 ), to compare observed patterns of variability in the Atlantic with natural coupled ocean–atmosphere modes evident in long climate model integrations ( Delworth and Mann, 2000 ), and to assess the relationship between global patterns of climate variation and particular regional patterns such as the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) ( Mann, 2000; Cullen et al., 2000 ) Here we further expand on the results of the Mann et al

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R. Tokmakian

Current and the California Current show a relative increase in their transports (a period of a strong Aleutian low and relatively low NP indexes, and a strong, warm Alaskan Current). In contrast, the period between 1988 and 1989 shows relatively weaker flow in both directions. This middle period is the period with higher than average NP index values (relative to the period 1979–2002; Trenberth and Hurrell, 1994 ), indicating weaker mixing and warmer midgyre temperatures (“type-A” circulation pattern

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Daniel F. Steinhoff, Andrew J. Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Michael J. Barlage, Thomas M. Hopson, Isaac Tarakidzwa, Karielys Ortiz-Rosario, Saul Lozano-Fuentes, Mary H. Hayden, Paul E. Bieringer, and Carlos M. Welsh Rodríguez

exchanges between the surface and atmosphere in numerical weather prediction models in order to estimate the surface temperature and evaporation. A similar method is used here, adjusted for container geometries and thermodynamic characteristics. WHATCH’EM requires as input a minimal amount of commonly available meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) to produce water temperature and level estimates. Optional radiation, cloud, soil, and wind data can be used to improve the

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David M. Mocko and Y. C. Sud

1. Introduction and motivation The Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB) ( Xue et al., 1991 ) is a biophysical model of land–atmosphere interactions, which was designed to simulate land surface processes in numerical models realistically. The interactions are calculated from the fundamental governing equations ( Sellers et al., 1986 ) and provide fluxes of radiation absorption, reflection, and emission together with momentum, and sensible and latent heat to overlaying atmospheric general

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Gidon Eshel, Pamela A. Martin, and Esther E. Bowen

. The choice of 18 is roughly in the middle of the 15–21 range but close enough to 21 to permit a large number of combinations. We repeated some of the analyses reported here by choosing 16 or 20 daily items with very similar results. Second, in each of the 1500 daily diets, the permitted mass of each included item falls between N (60, 8) and N (150, 8) g. Diets containing garlic require special care because (due to garlic’s high energy, high protein, low fat content, and minimal land

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Christopher Potter, Steven Klooster, Alfredo Huete, and Vanessa Genovese

derived from canopy radiative transfer theory and/or measured biophysical–optical relationships. EVI was developed to optimize the greenness signal, or area-averaged canopy photosynthetic capacity, with improved sensitivity in high biomass regions and improved vegetation monitoring through a decoupling of the canopy background signal and a reduction in atmosphere influences. Houborg and Soegaard ( Houborg and Soegaard 2004 ) found that MODIS EVI was able to accurately describe the variation in green

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P. G. Oguntunde, N. C. van de Giesen, P. L. G. Vlek, and H. Eggers

1. Introduction Pertinent to our understanding of regional and global change in the hydrological cycle is the knowledge of biosphere–atmosphere interactions that includes the effects of climate on ecosystem functions and the potential feedbacks of the land surface to the physical climate system. Studying these interactions requires a nested experimental design whereby measurements of fluxes are taken using a variety of methods at different time and space scales ( Margolis and Ryan 1997

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Min Chen and Qianlai Zhuang

1. Introduction The global carbon cycle plays an important role in affecting the climate system ( Cramer et al. 1999 ). Quantifying the dynamics of carbon exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere is important in the understanding of global climate change. To date, many process-based biogeochemical models have been used to quantify carbon dynamics ( Bonan 1995 ; McGuire et al. 1992 ; Potter et al. 1993 ; Running and Coughlan 1988 ; Zhuang et al. 2003 ). These models incorporate the

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Mary K. Butwin, Sibylle von Löwis, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Johann Thorsson, and Throstur Thorsteinsson

Dagsson-Waldhauserova 2019 ; Butwin et al. 2019 ). Both dust storms and resuspension of ash are defined here as particulate matter (PM) events ( Arnalds et al. 2013 ). PM is composed of any solid material suspended in the atmosphere. These particles can come from pollen, sea salt, smoke, dust, and volcanic ash ( AMS 2012 ). The length of time following an Icelandic eruption that PM events occur, that contain mostly resuspended ash as opposed to the bulk material available for dust storms, is

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