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Laurent Menut and Bertrand Bessagnet

forecast system be better than without this perfect initial state? To answer this question, it is not necessary to try to develop very complex systems: an academic test case can be defined to control all variables. Then, we just have to evaluate the differences between several simulations: one representing the observations and one representing the forecast with the model as is. Thus, we consider that (i) the model is state of the art and (ii) the data assimilation algorithms are perfect—that is, the

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Guang-Zhen Jin, An-Zhou Cao, and Xian-Qing Lv

1. Introduction Internal tides are internal waves at tidal frequency and exist widely in the ocean. Barotropic tides, stratified fluids, and varying topographies are the three factors for internal tide generation. Some theoretical models have been developed to investigate the relationship between internal tides and the three factors. These models played an important role in the study of the internal tidal generation mechanism. However, most of these theoretical models were restricted to two

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Grant Thomas, Richard Cobb, Steven Fiorino, and Michael Hawks

aerosols (models B, D, and F) improve baseline models (models A and E, respectively). Including meteorological data alone (model C) reduces performance from model A in I band, improved performance in J band. Direct sky measurements in both I and J bands were compared to sky radiance simulations derived using NWP and ExPERT atmospheric profiles in LEEDR. Cloudless skies were assumed for all simulations. This assumption appears to be valid at 1345 and 1530 UTC; however, passing clouds were observed in

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Oreste Reale, Deepthi Achuthavarier, Marangelly Fuentes, William M. Putman, and Gary Partyka

broader and more diluted than a real TC eye, due to limited T511 horizontal resolution, the ECMWF T511 NR nevertheless represented a remarkable modeling achievement and has been serving as an invaluable tool for several years. Among others, the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory OSSE capability ( Privé et al. 2013c ) and the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) OSSE baseline ( Errico et al. 2013 ) and evaluation ( Privé et al. 2013b ) were built on the ECMWF T511 NR. However, since

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Benjamin T. Jones, Andrew Solow, and Rubao Ji

component of a population model may quantify the variability of the results differently. Realized population connectivity patterns include spawning distributions and postsettlement survival ( Watson et al. 2010 ). Researchers seeking to estimate these patterns may develop a population model that includes these processes, evaluate the population model using many credible values for the connectivity matrix and seek to minimize the variance in the evaluations. Either the output of a particle

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Yixuan Shen, Yuan Sun, Suzana J. Camargo, and Zhong Zhong

tracks. In Daloz et al. (2015) and Nakamura et al. (2017) , the model skill was evaluated based on the full TC track, using a regression mixture cluster analysis to classify observed and simulated TC tracks. The model’s performance was evaluated based on the comparison of the cluster memberships between observations and simulations. However, the results in the studies were still somewhat qualitative. Thereby, it is necessary to develop a new method that can objectively evaluate the ability of

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Ian T. Foster, Brian Toonen, and Patrick H. Worley

coding styles. Different MPP systems have widely varying architectures andperformance characteristics. For most problems, a range of different parallel implementations is possible, againwith varying performance characteristics. In this paper, we provide a detailed evaluation of MPP performancefor a spectral transform kernel as used in weather and climate modeling applications. Using a specially designedspectral transform code, the authors study performance on three different MPP systems: Intel

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R. J. Barthelmie, G. C. Larsen, S. T. Frandsen, L. Folkerts, K. Rados, S. C. Pryor, B. Lange, and G. Schepers

evaluate model performance at these wake distances. 2. Sodar experiment A ship-mounted sodar was used to measure wind turbine wakes in an offshore wind farm in Denmark (Vindeby; see Fig. 1 ). The experiment is described in detail in Barthelmie et al. (2003) . The wake magnitude and vertical extent were determined by measuring the wind speed profile behind an operating turbine, then shutting down the turbine and measuring the free-stream wind profile for periods of about 30 min. These measurements

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Jeffrey L. Hanson, Barbara A. Tracy, Hendrik L. Tolman, and R. Douglas Scott

1. Introduction The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Wave Information Study (WIS) program ( Tracy and Cialone 2004 ) is establishing a multidecade wave climatology for the Pacific basin to support a variety of coastal planning and engineering activities. To facilitate selection of an appropriate wave hindcast technology, the performance of three modern numerical spectral wave models is evaluated in the Pacific basin over calendar year 2000. The technologies evaluated include the third

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Toshihisa Matsui, Xiping Zeng, Wei-Kuo Tao, Hirohiko Masunaga, William S. Olson, and Stephen Lang

the observed regional difference in PCT b 85 distributions. 5. Summary and discussion Long-term simulations of convective cloud systems observed during SCSMEX and KWAJEX using the GCE model are evaluated through comparison between TRMM observations and simulated radiances and reflectivities using multisensor simulators. A proposed methodology for evaluating the simulated radiances and reflectivites using three of TRMM’s sensors, known as T3EF, was used to systematically evaluate the performance

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