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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

(CNES)] with ever increasing precision and accuracy ( Fu 2001 ; Fu and Cazenave 2001 ). This series of measurement was continued by the Franco-American Jason-1 , Jason-2 , and Jason-3 , as well as by ESA’s Environmental Satellite ( Envisat ), U.S. Navy’s Geosat Follow-On , the France–India collaborative mission of AltiKa, and ESA’s CryoSat ( Fu and Morrow 2013 ), leading to a continuous record of ocean surface topography since 1992. The new capability of satellite oceanography underscored the

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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

) pointed out that the SP-CAM produces fairly realistic diurnal cycles of precipitation over both the continents and the oceans. Pritchard and Somerville (2009a , b ) Pritchard et al. (2011) , and Kooperman et al. (2013) performed detailed analyses of the SP-CAM’s simulations of the diurnal cycle of precipitation over central North America in summer. They showed that the model is able to simulate the observed propagation of diurnally forced convective systems from near the Rocky Mountains in the

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

Related Sciences: Celebrating the American Meteorological Society Centennial , Meteor. Monogr. , No. 59, Amer. Meteor. Soc., https://doi.org/10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-18-0017.1 . 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-18-0017.1 Helland-Hansen , B. , and F. Nansen , 1920 : Temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean and in the atmosphere: Introductory studies on the cause of climatological variations, Smithson. Misc. Collect ., 70 (4), 408 pp. Herceg-Bulić , I. , B. Mezzina , F. Kucharski , P

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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

weather, climate, and society are included, as well as recommendations for future work. 2. Description of the ice-phase precipitation and microphysics Solid precipitation, including both single and complex snow crystals, is very important in precipitation process. Based on the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Glossary of Meteorology ( American Meteorological Society 2016a ), snow is defined as precipitation composed of white and/or translucent ice crystals, chiefly in complex branched hexagonal

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

sites, one north and one south of the equator in the region of high variability, in order to sample the movement of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and its consequences. These recommendations were summarized in two reports. The first report, entitled “Science and Siting Strategy for the Tropical Western Pacific ARM CART Locale,” was authored by Ackerman et al. (1993) . The second report is a final updating of that document issued in 1999, coauthored by the same individuals, and its title

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Margaret A. LeMone, Wayne M. Angevine, Christopher S. Bretherton, Fei Chen, Jimy Dudhia, Evgeni Fedorovich, Kristina B. Katsaros, Donald H. Lenschow, Larry Mahrt, Edward G. Patton, Jielun Sun, Michael Tjernström, and Jeffrey Weil

development of ensemble Kalman filter and variational methods enable large-scale land data assimilation ( Maggioni and Houser 2017 ). An alternative strategy is to utilize available observations (precipitation, surface solar insolation, and meteorological analysis) to drive an LSM in offline mode and use the results to initiate the model. This need was met by the development of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004 ), the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

visionary scientists played particularly central roles ( Fig. 12-1 ). The great American meteorologist Cleveland Abbe recognized that meteorology is essentially the application of hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to the atmosphere ( Abbe 1901 ), and he identified the system of mathematical equations that govern the evolution of the atmosphere ( Willis and Hooke 2006 ). The Norwegian scientist Vilhelm Bjerknes undertook a more explicit analysis of the weather prediction problem from a scientific

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Yukari N. Takayabu, George N. Kiladis, and Victor Magaña

lower-stratospheric YM waves at 70 hPa tended to appear episodically as localized wave packets and were characterized by a broad range of phase speeds. Similar results were obtained by Randel (1992) but for longer-period (6–10 day) upper-tropospheric YM waves over the eastern Pacific/South America sectors, which were uncoupled to convection and determined to be quite distinct from those over the west Pacific warm pool. Randel (1992) also found strong evidence for extratropical forcing of the

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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

analysis and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) has been evaluated in Xie et al. (2003 , 2006) and Kennedy et al. (2011) , and it was shown that cloud fields and vertical velocity in these products contain large errors during precipitation events. 5. The ARM variational analysis method Recognizing the accuracy limit in large-scale forcing data and the need for transient forcing data in ARM, Zhang and Lin (1997) developed a constrained variational algorithm to incorporate more

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Thomas P. Ackerman, Ted S. Cress, Wanda R. Ferrell, James H. Mather, and David D. Turner

1. Introduction The early years of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (see Stokes 2016 , chapter 2) were devoted to the establishment of ground-based remote sensing sites at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA; see Sisterson et al. 2016 , chapter 6; Long et al. 2016 , chapter 7; Verlinde et al. 2016 , chapter 8). The ARM Program focused a great deal of its activity on site selection, instrument choices, site

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