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Jeffrey T. Morisette, Louis Giglio, Ivan Csiszar, Alberto Setzer, Wilfrid Schroeder, Douglas Morton, and Christopher O. Justice

satellite-derived fire products to other fire-related LBA projects, including, but not limited to, Trace Gas and Aerosol Fluxes Project 3: Characterization of aerosol optical properties and solar flux for NASA’s LBA-Ecology program (LBA-ECO); Trace Gas and Aerosol Fluxes Project 10: Tropical biomass fires and tropospheric chemistry: chemistry and production of smoke in Brazil; Land Cover and Land Use Change Project 2: Land-cover/land-use change and carbon dynamics in an expanding frontier in western

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Silvia Merino-de-Miguel, Federico González-Alonso, Margarita Huesca, Dolors Armenteras, and Carol Franco

properties but also to discriminate and map burned areas. As shown by Lentile et al. ( Lentile et al. 2006 ), in most environments and fire regimes and at the spatial resolution of most satellite sensors (>30 m), burned vegetation results in a drastic reduction in NIR surface reflectance; this is typically accompanied by a rise in shortwave-infrared (SWIR) reflectance. Thus, several spectral indices have been created to integrate the NIR and SWIR bands, both of which register the strongest responses, in

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C. Kendra Gotangco Castillo and Kevin Robert Gurney

immediate, first-order, and time-dependent response varying in accordance with the prescribed deforestation rates. Broadleaf evergreen and deciduous tropical trees (leaf albedo = 0.10 and stem albedo = 0.16 in the visible) both have a lower albedo than C4 grasses (leaf albedo = 0.11 and stem albedo = 0.36 in the visible), and hence deforestation causes significant albedo changes compared to the control. (For a complete list of reflectances, as well as other optical properties per PFT, refer to Oleson

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J. S. Kimball, M. Zhao, A. D. McGuire, F. A. Heinsch, J. Clein, M. Calef, W. M. Jolly, S. Kang, S. E. Euskirchen, K. C. McDonald, and S. W. Running

defined by a Biome Properties Lookup Table (BPLUT) and the global land cover classification. The BPLUT defines response characteristics for 11 major biomes including evergreen needleleaf and broadleaf deciduous forests, mixed deciduous and evergreen forests, grasslands, shrublands, and croplands. The PEM used for this investigation is currently being used for operational global assessment and monitoring of GPP and NPP using LAI and FPAR data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

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Bharat Rastogi, A. Park Williams, Douglas T. Fischer, Sam F. Iacobellis, Kathryn McEachern, Leila Carvalho, Charles Jones, Sara A. Baguskas, and Christopher J. Still

1. Introduction Low-lying stratocumulus clouds and fog have been known to modify biophysical and ecological properties in a variety of ecosystems in differing climates. These include montane cloud forests in the tropics, which are dependent on frequent and prolonged immersion in the cloud layer ( Still et al. 1999 ), as well as in temperate regions such as the Appalachian Mountains in northeastern America, where the shift from low elevation deciduous to high elevation coniferous forests is

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Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, Samantha J. Basile, and Forrest M. Hoffman

evaluate models against observations. When evaluating coupled ESMs, simulated ecosystem properties may disagree with observational metrics due either to misparameterization of the relevant biogeochemical or biogeophysical processes or to biases in the physical climate drivers thereof. Model development and improvement, therefore, requires evaluating simulations using metrics that constrain functional responses—in other words, the relationships between driver and response variables—rather than simply

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Mirco Boschetti, Daniela Stroppiana, and Pietro Alessandro Brivio

geodatabase of fire-affected areas. However, the proposed approach to some extent depends on the parameterization of the fuzzy membership functions, which in this case is done with a partially data-driven approach to cover the wide range of spectral properties of burned areas in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Italy. Clearly, it can be applied automatically where these conditions are met, and further tests should be carried out if the algorithm has to be applied to different biomes. Indeed, this

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Brandon L. Parkes, Hannah L. Cloke, Florian Pappenberger, Jeff Neal, and David Demeritt

complex, built-up areas ( Bates 2012 ), which are particularly important to understand given the great risks to life and property posed by such urban flooding. 2D flood models apply a variety of approaches to estimating solutions of the shallow-water equations defined by Saint-Venant ( Saint-Venant 1871 ). Reviews of commonly used models can be found in Hunter et al. ( Hunter et al. 2008 ) and Pender and Néelz ( Pender and Néelz 2010 ). The model used for this research, LISFLOOD-FP, divides the

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