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Byung-Ju Sohn and Eric A. Smith

surface processeswithin low-latitude-teleconnection centers because theyrepresent major controls on the variability of the netradiation balance at the top-of-atmosphere. Over thetropics from 150 N to 150 S, zonal LW departures arelargely explained by scales at planetary wavenumbers1, 2, and 3. The interannual anomalies found in thewave composite exhibit zonal propagation. Eastwardpropagation in total and cloud-induced LW positiveanomalies from the Indian Ocean to the eastern PacificNorth AfricaEnergy

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Pu Lin, Qiang Fu, Susan Solomon, and John M. Wallace

trend patterns of stratospheric temperature in the SH high latitudes, which are consistent with previous studies of the zonal averages (e.g., Randel et al. 2009 ; Thompson and Solomon 2002 ), but reveal additional insights. The state-of-the-art coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) that are the basis for the projections in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) tend to focus on the troposphere, and generally have poorly resolved

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François-Marie Breon, Robert Frouin, and Catherine Gautier

observations, however, are notsensitive to all the wavelengths of the solar spectrum,and transforming the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) datainto albedo averaged over the entire solar spectrum isnot without uncertainties (e.g., Ramanathan 1986; Cessand Vulis 1989). More recently, Frouin and Chertock (1992) described a method based on earth radiation budget(ERB) broadband planetary albedo measurements.Since they used ERB wide-field-of-view sensor data,the major drawback of their method is a spatial resolution

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Varavut Limpasuvan and Dennis L. Hartmann

., 2000: North Atlantic oscillation/annular mode: Two paradigms—one phenomenon. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 791–805 . ——, and H.-H. Hsu, 1985: Another look at the index cycle. Tellus, 37A, 478–486 . Yoden, S., M. Shiotani, and I. Hirota, 1987: Multiple planetary flow regimes in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65, 571–585 . Yu, J.-Y., and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: Zonal flow vacillation and eddy forcing in a simple GCM of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 3244

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Amy Solomon, Julian P. McCreary Jr., Richard Kleeman, and Barry A. Klinger

discussed next, however, there are studies of low-frequency variability that support various aspects associated with coupled modes. Several studies point toward the existence of ocean-to-atmosphere coupling in one region with atmospheric teleconnections to another. Nakamura and Izumi (2002) found that warm interannual-to-decadal atmospheric temperature anomalies at the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the northwest Pacific (Kuroshio Extension region) are associated with enhanced storm

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David Rind and Nambath K. Balachandran

thosedescribed in Part I: the altered refraction characteristicsof the atmosphere, with increased UV an increase inthe vertical wind shear, are favoring vertical propagation of planetary wave energy from the polar lowerstratosphere to higher levels, producing a net E-P fluxdivergence in the polar lower stratosphere. In all theQBO experiments, there is greater planetary wavepropagation to higher latitudes in the lower stratosphereduring the east phase, but with increased UV energy,upward propagation is

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Ming Cai

factor and the planetary factor that the lands in the west and east confine the equatorial Pacific basin, we here have demonstrated that the atmosphere–ocean coupling alone can give rise to an equilibrium state that has the same west–east asymmetry configuration as in the real world. c. Why does a damped oscillation become a self-sustained finite-amplitude oscillation? When the coupling coefficient is smaller than the second critical value, the solution is a damped oscillation toward either a zonally

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Masakazu Taguchi and Dennis L. Hartmann

, 649 – 667 . Bretherton , C. S. , M. Widmann , V. P. Dymnikov , J. M. Wallace , and I. Blade , 1999 : The effective number of spatial degrees of freedom of a time-varying field. J. Climate , 12 , 1990 – 2009 . Charney , J. G. , and P. G. Drazin , 1961 : Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower to the upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 66 , 83 – 109 . Hamilton , K. , 1993 : An examination of observed Southern Oscillation effects in the Northern

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Laura D. Fowler and David A. Randall

optical properties on the simulated top-of-the-atmosphere longwave and shortwavecloud radiative forcings and simulated outgoing longwave radiation and planetary albedo are described insection 5. We also compare the simulated top-of-theatmosphere radiation budget components with thosederived from the ERB Experiment (ERBE; Barkstromand Smith 1986). Differences in the atmospheric general circulation between EAULIQ and CONTROL arediscussed in section 6. Section 7 summarizes our resultsand highlights

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In-Sik Kang, Fei Liu, Min-Seop Ahn, Young-Min Yang, and Bin Wang

above, there is yet no broadly agreed upon theory for the MJO, the interaction between large-scale moisture dynamics and convection seems to be one of the key dynamical processes of the MJO ( Wang 2005 ). In particular, the convectively coupled Kelvin wave proposed by Lau and Peng (1987) is able to explain several aspects of the observed MJO properties ( Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ), such as that of the eastward-propagating planetary-scale waves, although it is faster than that of the MJO. In the

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