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Neil Debbage and J. Marshall Shepherd

characteristics of the flood were potentially modified by the urban environment. Section 3 presents the results of the numerical modeling experiments. Finally, section 4 summarizes the major findings and explores the potential urban planning implications of the study. 2. Data and methodology a. WRF Model configuration Because of the complexity of the 2009 Atlanta flood, it was difficult to conclusively discern the second-order influences of the urban environment from observational records. Therefore, this

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Lars Böcker and Sofia Thorsson

integrate and expand on knowledge about the complex link between weather and cycling. This knowledge could be used to give guidance on how to plan and design sustainable, healthy, accessible, and attractive urban areas at present and in a changing climate. 2. Data and methods Selected for this study was the greater Rotterdam area situated on the west coast of the Netherlands. The area is part of the Randstad, the densely populated economic heart of the Netherlands. Typical for the Netherlands, cycling

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David O'C. Starr

Plans for an intensive cirrus-cloud field experiment are described. The Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (Cirrus IFO) is a major component of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE). The field campaign was conducted in Wisconsin during October 1986. Observing systems include satellites, “cloud” lidars, a very high-altitude, satellite-simulator aircraft platform, two research aircraft instrumented for detailed in situ microphysical and radiometric observations, a Doppler lidar, numerous passive surface-radiation sites, and a rawinsonde network. This is the first cirrus experiment involving such a comprehensive observing system.

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Ana Raquel Nunes

possible impacts ( Arbuthnott and Hajat 2017 ; Hajat 2017 ; Hales et al. 2012 ; Wolf et al. 2010 ). The resilience of individuals and societies is modified by extreme temperatures ( IPCC 2012 ). As a result, the IPCC (2012 , 2018) has called for increased resilience of individuals as a way of reducing the impacts of extreme temperatures through improvements in planning and policy for strengthening resilience and enhancing adaptation in the short, medium, and longer terms. As a result, calls for a

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Daniel B. Ferguson, Anna Masayesva, Alison M. Meadow, and Michael A. Crimmins

, and longer-lasting droughts in the Colorado basin ( Gershunov et al. 2013 ). In addition to the challenges associated with the warming trend, paleoclimate research has demonstrated that the Southwest has experienced drought conditions that are significantly more severe, long lasting, and spatially extensive than anything in the instrumental record ( Woodhouse et al. 2010 ). This climatic context suggests that planning for drought is necessary to increase the resilience of social–ecological systems

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John M. Bane, Clinton D. Winant, and James E. Overland

A number of observational programs have been carried out on the United States continental shelf to describe coastal-ocean circulation with emphasis on mesoscale processes. In several of these studies the atmosphere was found to play a central role in determining the coastal circulation through either local or remote forcing. Because of these results, the Coastal Physical Oceanography (CoPO) planning effort has designated three coastal air-sea interaction areas to focus on in a national program to study the physical processes on the continental shelf. These areas are shelf frontogenesis, interaction of stable layers with topography, and forcing by severe storms. The long-term objective of the air-sea interaction component of CoPO is to better understand the structure, dynamics, and evolution of the various mesoscale and synoptic-scale processes that significantly affect coastal/shelf circulation through air-sea interactions. Within this body of knowledge will be an improved quantification of the air-sea exchanges of dynamically important quantities set in the framework of mesoscale and synoptic-scale processes.

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Julie Brugger and Michael Crimmins

1. Introduction In light of global climate change, adaptation will be necessary at all levels of social organization. We are beginning to see institutions emerge to address adaptation planning at national, regional, state, and metropolitan levels; however, the adaptation literature emphasizes that because the impacts of climate change and vulnerability are locally specific, adaptation is inevitably local (e.g., Agrawal 2008 ). By local-level adaptation we mean “bottom up” efforts of local

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Dian J. Seidel, Franz H. Berger, Howard J. Diamond, John Dykema, David Goodrich, Franz Immler, William Murray, Thomas Peterson, Douglas Sisterson, Michael Sommer, Peter Thorne, Holger Vomel, and Junhong Wang

While the global upper-air observing network has provided useful observations for operational weather forecasting for decades, its measurements lack the accuracy and long-term continuity needed for understanding climate change. Consequently, the scientific community faces uncertainty on key climate issues, such as the nature of temperature trends in the troposphere and stratosphere; the climatology, radiative effects, and hydrological role of water vapor in the upper troposphere and stratosphere; and the vertical profile of changes in atmospheric ozone, aerosols, and other trace constituents. Radiosonde data provide adequate vertical resolution to address these issues, but they have questionable accuracy and time-varying biases due to changing instrumentation and techniques. Although satellite systems provide global coverage, their vertical resolution is sometimes inadequate and they require independent reference observations for sensor and data product validation, and for merging observations from different platforms into homogeneous climate records. To address these shortcomings, and to ensure that future climate records will be more useful than the records to date, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program is initiating a GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) to provide high-quality observations using specialized radiosondes and complementary remote sensing profiling instrumentation that can be used for validation. This paper outlines the scientific rationale for GRUAN, its role in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, network requirements and likely instrumentation, management structure, current status, and future plans. It also illustrates the value of prototype reference upper-air observations in constructing climate records and their potential contribution to the Global Space-Based Inter-Calibration System. We invite constructive feedback on the GRUAN concept and the engagement of the scientific community.

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Seth P. Tuler, Thomas Webler, and Jason L. Rhoades

federal government’s Technical Paper 40 ( Hershfield 1961 ). Only recently did the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) upgrade its stormwater management tool for new precipitation patterns expected to result from climate change ( EPA 2015 ). In addition, efforts to integrate sustainability and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions into urban development are driving planning that emphasizes more dense and low-impact development ( Hamin and Gurran 2009 ; Pyke et al. 2011 ). When development patterns

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Theresa Jedd, Deborah Bathke, Duane Gill, Bimal Paul, Nicole Wall, Tonya Bernadt, Jacob Petr, Anthony Mucia, and Milan Wall

. School nurses were concerned about the increasing number of occurrences of asthma in children, which was an ongoing concern for decades. The health department receives reports from the state on the quality of public water systems, and they also monitor reports on lake water quality related to blue-green algae blooms. Nebraska Game and Parks provided educational and pond management materials and tailored habitat and wildlife protection plans. Conservation-based programs involved preventive prescribed

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