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Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

. Miller , M. A. , and Coauthors , 2007 : SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Science and implementation plan. DOE/SC-ARM-0703, 14 pp. [Available online at https://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-sc-arm-0703.pdf .] Minnis , P. , S. Mayor , W. L. Smith , and D. F. Young , 1997 : Asymmetry in the diurnal variation of surface albedo . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 35 , 879 – 890 , doi: 10.1109/36.602530 . Neggers , R. A. J. , A. P. Siebesma , G

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

understand the physical processes controlling this balance, and to improve the representation of these processes in global climate models (GCMs; DOE 1990 ). Fig . 20-1. The global annual mean Earth’s energy budget for the March 2000 to May 2004 period (W m −2 ; from Trenberth et al. 2009 ). To address these questions, the ARM site measurements were planned to provide a full characterization of the radiatively important properties of the atmospheric column, as well as measurements of the radiative

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

stratospheric ozone may be catalytically destroyed by a photochemical cycle involving the nitrogen oxides NO and NO 2 . This important discovery rectified the deficiencies of the Chapman cycle and brought the theoretical calculations of stratospheric ozone into good agreement with stratospheric observations. Spurred by concerns about the impact of nitrogen oxide emissions by planned supersonic air traffic and later the impact of chlorofluorocarbons on stratospheric ozone, extensive observations of the

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

). Fig . 16-20. Schematic illustrations of vertically uncoupled upper- and lower-level jet–front systems: (a) Plan view of the location of the upper-level jet streak exit region with respect to the surface frontal zone. Isotachs are given by thick solid lines (with the solid arrow denoting the axis of the upper-level jet streak), surface isentropes are given by thin dashed lines, and the open arrow denotes the axis of the lower-level jet. (b) Cross-section C–C′, as indicated in (a), with isotachs

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

of the upper 2000 m of the water column. This measurement, coupled with ocean surface topography from altimetry, has provided essential information on the geostrophic circulation of the world’s oceans, as well as the density field of the ocean. Recognized in the Williamstown conference as well as the planning for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission in the early 1980s, there was a fundamental need for the information of the geoid, which is a surface of constant gravitational potential, to determine the

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

.3.CO;2 Allwine , K. J. , M. J. Leach , L. W. Stockham , J. S. Shinn , R. P. Hosker , J. F. Bowers , and J. C. Pace , 2004 : Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone/Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface , Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1, https://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/74349.pdf . Angell , J. K

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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

, 2016 ; Girard and Blanchet 2001a , b ; Yang et al. 2005 ; Huffman et al. 1995 ; Intrieri and Shupe 2004 ). Although heavy precipitation with large particles brings in large amounts of water over land and ocean surfaces, continuous light precipitation can play a much more important role in the growing season of plants, on aviation mission planning, and on the assessment of climate change. The LSN precipitation can also be responsible for discrepancies in precipitation retrievals between remote

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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

recognition that the decades-long record of observations of clouds, aerosol, and radiation at megasites such as SGP or NSA could be used more fruitfully for model evaluation, ARM is creating a framework to further facilitate comparison between models and observations. Modelers tend to focus on a few choice case studies because of the difficulties of evaluating their models for a broad range of conditions. ARM and ASR are together engaging in plans for regular high-resolution modeling to complement regular

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J. Bühl, S. Alexander, S. Crewell, A. Heymsfield, H. Kalesse, A. Khain, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, and M. Wendisch

proportion of ice at a given temperature than clouds in the Northern Hemisphere ( Marchand et al. 2010 ), and ice formation in mixed-phase cloud layers has been found to be less efficient ( Kanitz et al. 2011 ). Both phenomena could be attributed to the much cleaner atmosphere of the Southern Ocean with a smaller reservoir of ice nucleating particles. Future land-, ship-, and aircraft-based experiments planned for the upcoming years in the northern and Southern Ocean will seek to address these issues. So

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Eli J. Mlawer, Michael J. Iacono, Robert Pincus, Howard W. Barker, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and David L. Mitchell

-based radiative flux and heating rate product. The birth of the Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC; Oreopoulos and Mlawer 2010 ) can be traced back to those discussions. As the name implies, one of the central ideas was that the project would become the source of an evolving and regularly updated permanent reference database for evaluation of radiative transfer codes used in a variety of Earth system models. During the initial stages of CIRC planning, it became apparent that choosing only

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