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Jielun Sun and L. Mahrt

1096 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~..52, No. 8Determination of Surface Fluxes from the Surface Radiative Temperature JmLu~ SuB ~rD L. MAHRTCollege of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon(Manuscript received 27 June 1994, in final form 26 August 1994)ABS~CT This study examines the bulk aerodynamic method for estimating surface fluxes of

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Howard P. Hanson and Vernon E. Derr

NOVEMBER 1987HOWARD P. HANSON AND VERNON E. DERR1511Parameterization of Radiative Flux Profiles within Layer CloudsHOWARD P. HANSONCooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado/NOAA, Boulder, CO 80309VERNON E. DERRNOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, CO 80303(Manuscript received 17 October 1985, in final form 15 April 1987)ABSTRACTThe vertical structure of radiative flux profiles within clouds can have a significant impact on the

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Karen L. Smith, Michael Previdi, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

1988 ). Arctic climate change, including dramatic sea ice loss and surface and midtropospheric warming, has motivated numerous studies of the energy budget in this region ( Kay et al. 2012 ; Cullather and Bosilovich 2012 ; Porter et al. 2010 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ; Nakamura and Oort 1988 ). Although the Antarctic has not experienced comparable polar amplification, the dramatic change in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave radiative flux associated with Southern Hemisphere stratospheric ozone

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Sukyoung Lee, Tingting Gong, Nathaniel Johnson, Steven B. Feldstein, and David Pollard

which θ is potential temperature. The third term, , approximates clear-sky radiative cooling, where γ −1 is the radiative relaxation time scale. Finally, represents the remaining diabatic heating contribution including latent heating, infrared radiation (IR) warming by clouds, and surface heat fluxes. Rewriting (1) in terms of δT , we have This equation states that if the sum of the rhs of (2) is positive in that region. In this section, we investigate to what extent the dynamic

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Dorothy Koch, Susanne E. Bauer, Anthony Del Genio, Greg Faluvegi, Joseph R. McConnell, Surabi Menon, Ronald L. Miller, David Rind, Reto Ruedy, Gavin A. Schmidt, and Drew Shindell

and climate throughout the century. Furthermore, the climate system is not in equilibrium during the late twentieth century, with ocean heat uptake moderating temperature change and feedbacks from the cryosphere occurring incrementally; this disequilibrium can only be captured in a transient experiment. The paper begins with the model description ( section 2 ), changes in emissions, concentrations, and loads ( section 3 ), radiative flux changes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface

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Lukas Kluft, Sally Dacie, Stefan A. Buehler, Hauke Schmidt, and Bjorn Stevens

atmosphere would then be underestimated. Following Cronin (2014) we choose a solar irradiance of 510 W m −2 and a zenith angle of 47.88°. This results in an incoming shortwave flux of 342 W m −2 at the top of the atmosphere while also keeping the amount of atmospheric absorption in the right proportion. The latter is important for computing radiative heating rates. The configured incoming radiation is lower than observed values in the tropics to compensate for energy transport to the extratropics

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Howard W. Barker and John A. Davies

JULY 1992 BARKER AND DAVIES 1115Solar Radiative Fluxes for Stochastic, Scale-invariant Broken Cloud Fields HOWARD W. BARKER* AND JOHN A. DAVIESDepartment of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada(Manuscript received 19 December 1990, in final form 27 September 1991)ABSTRACT Solar radiative fluxes for broken, cumuloform cloud fields are examined from the point of view of

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Laura M. Hinkelman

-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes and surface temperature in the context of climate variability. Applications of MERRA data for polar studies include the work of La and Park (2016) on the effect of clouds on phytoplankton in Antarctica, as well as a paper by Letterly et al. (2016) concerning the impact of winter clouds on summer sea ice in the Arctic. Hundreds of other papers relying on MERRA data are in the literature. While use of MERRA continues, the number of studies based on MERRA-2 has grown

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Ken Takahashi

budget of the troposphere ( AI02 ). This brings the complex physics of radiative transfer into the problem, which makes it difficult to produce a simple conceptual theory; so, for example, AI02 take an empirical approach by which the behavior of the radiative fluxes is fit to observed (or modeled) changes in temperature, and changes in the sensible heat fluxes (SHFs) are neglected. One of the main difficulties with a theoretical approach based on the radiative transfer physics is the great

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Sunwook Park and Xiaoqing Wu

monthlong CRM simulations have also conducted by Wu et al. (1998 , 1999) during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) between November 1992 and February 1993 and by Wu et al. (2007) during the ARM SGP intensive observation period (IOP) in 1997. They showed that the CRM-produced data have reasonable agreement with ground-measured and satellite-retrieved data such as temperature, moisture, surface heat fluxes, precipitation, and radiative

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