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Diana L. Verseghy and Murray D. MacKay

, leading to marked differences in the surface energy balance (e.g., Verseghy et al. 2017 ). The effects of large lakes on local weather and climate have long been recognized (e.g., Notaro et al. 2013 ; Balsamo et al. 2012 ; Steenburgh et al. 2000 ; Lofgren 1997 ). As a result, efforts have been underway for a number of years to incorporate parameterizations for inland lakes into regional and global climate models. To avoid undue computational complexity, these efforts have generally made use of 1D

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Sara A. Rauscher, Fred Kucharski, and David B. Enfield

2006 ) (or in this case, “dry spot”) in the tropics and subtropics requires further exploration. The pattern of SST warming in the tropics and subtropics has recently emerged as an important factor in the regional response to greenhouse-gas-induced climate change ( Xie et al. 2010 ; Clement et al. 2010 ). Since the tropical-mean SST will determine upper-tropospheric temperature changes, areas where SSTs do not warm as much will have greater static stability and vice versa ( Sobel et al. 2002

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Stanley G. Benjamin

330 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 114Some Effects of Surface Heating and Topography on the Regional Severe Storm Environment. Part H: Two-Dimensional Idealized Experiments STANLEY G. BENJAMINNational Center for .4tmospheric Research,* Boulder, CO, and Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Systems, NOAA, Environmental Research Laboratories

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Martin Hoerling, Jon Eischeid, and Judith Perlwitz

discount the role of other effects that anthropogenic climate forcings (i.e., aerosols via their direct and indirect effects) included in the CMIP simulations can exert on regional precipitation changes (e.g., Ming and Ramaswamy 2009 ). We are, however, reasonably assured that the AMIP ensemble precipitation trends offer a realistic diagnosis of the role of SSTs in the fully coupled observed system during 1977–2006, and that they also provide insight into the causes for rainfall trends in the CMIP

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Michael Notaro, Kathleen Holman, Azar Zarrin, Elody Fluck, Steve Vavrus, and Val Bennington

simulations with and without the inclusion of the Great Lakes. Bates et al. (1993) performed simulations using a regional climate model with and without the Great Lakes for a 10-day period in December 1985, focusing on the lakes' impacts on basinwide precipitation. In these 10-day simulations, lake effects were responsible for 50%–70% of precipitation across the major snowbelts of the Great Lakes Basin. Subsequent studies by Bonan (1995) and Lofgren (1997) focused on climate time scales, using

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Renato Ramos da Silva, David Werth, and Roni Avissar

state of the atmosphere, which leads to errors in rainfall modeling ( Molinari and Dudek 1992 ). With the increasing capability of computing systems, it is now feasible to study the effects of deforestation on the climate with regional climate models set up with grid sizes on the order of 20–30 km. Obviously, at these scales, both weather and land-cover patchiness are better resolved. Another benefit is the availability of improved cumulus parameterizations designed to operate at this resolution

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Scott D. Rudlosky and Henry E. Fuelberg

1. Introduction Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distributions are strongly influenced by seasonal and regional variations in atmospheric conditions. Thus, analysis of CG characteristics and their relation to specific changes in atmospheric conditions can help to better define the CG threat. Many studies have described CG variability on both the seasonal and regional scales; however, ambiguity still remains in the relationships between atmospheric conditions, storm-scale processes, and CG

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Hanna Hueging, Rabea Haas, Kai Born, Daniela Jacob, and Joaquim G. Pinto

et al. (2008) analyzed WED changes in the Mediterranean region using the regional climate model (RCM) PRECIS driven by HadCM3 (see Table 1 for a list of climate models). They found a decrease of mean WED, except for the Aegean, where an increase is projected. Pryor et al. (2012a) pointed out that marked differences may exist between RCM runs with the same large-scale GCM forcing, and that internal variability and initial conditions may also have a strong impact on the results. A possible

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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

important implications for their potential to modulate the heat and moisture surface budgets ( Solomon et al. 2007 ), surface–air exchange processes, and the general circulation of the atmosphere (e.g., Lau et al. 2006 ). It is necessary to understand these regional effects before a comprehensive understanding of its global-scale impact can be achieved. In this paper, the DRE LW of airborne mineral dust during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) 2006 field campaign is

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Tomohito J. Yamada, Myong-In Lee, Masao Kanamitsu, and Hideki Kanamaru

(US10)] and carefully examine the representation of diurnal rainfall in the boreal summer in the contiguous United States and northern Mexico. One of the major motivations of this study is to examine whether the broad-scale features in the rainfall are reasonably reproduced by explicitly resolving subgrid-scale convection and precipitation process. 2. Model and dynamical downscaling procedure This study used the Regional Spectral Model (RSM; Juang and Kanamitsu 1994 ) that originated from a model

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