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Erick R. Rivera, Francina Dominguez, and Christopher L. Castro

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are filamentary water vapor fluxes that cover about 10% of the globe and are responsible for most of the meridional water vapor transport in the extratropical atmosphere ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). These features are typically located in the warm sector of major extratropical cyclones where a pre-cold-front low-level jet is present ( Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 , 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Ralph and Dettinger 2011 ). Generally

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Gerhard Smiatek and Harald Kunstmann

-CORDEX initiative employed in a hydrology model (HM) allow reproducing the observed flow duration curves (FDCs) at various gauges of a river located in the Alpine and pre-Alpine area, and what changes in the river flow can be expected under future climate conditions. The exemplarily chosen investigated catchment is, at 600 km 2 , typical for an Alpine and pre-Alpine headwater catchment. With its complex terrain, fast propagation of the precipitated water into the high streamflows, and susceptibility to flooding

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Qian Cao, Ali Mehran, F. Martin Ralph, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction A body of work over the last decade or so has demonstrated that most major floods along the U.S. West Coast are attributable to atmospheric rivers (ARs; e.g., Ralph et al. 2006 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Barth et al. 2017 ), which are long, narrow, and transient corridors of anomalously strong horizontal water vapor transport ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2018 ). Accompanied by warm air temperatures and strong low-level winds, AR landfalls may

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Ervin Zsótér, Florian Pappenberger, Paul Smith, Rebecca Elizabeth Emerton, Emanuel Dutra, Fredrik Wetterhall, David Richardson, Konrad Bogner, and Gianpaolo Balsamo

multimodel forecasting and have focused on individual catchments. The potential of multimodel forecasts at the regional or continental scale shown in previous studies provides the motivation for building a global multimodel hydrometeorological forecasting system. In this study we present our experiences in building a multimodel hydrometeorological forecasting system. Global ensemble discharge forecasts with a 10-day horizon are generated using the ECMWF land surface model and a river-routing model. The

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Julie A. Vano, Tapash Das, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction The Colorado River is the major water source for much of the southwestern United States. The river’s discharge is regulated by numerous dams on tributaries and two major main stem dams—Glen Canyon and Hoover, which form impoundments (Lakes Powell and Mead, respectively) that store about four times the mean annual natural flow of the river (observed discharge adjusted for effects of upstream diversions and storage) at its mouth. In a relative sense, the storage provided by these

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Matthew C. Sanders, Jason M. Cordeira, and Nicholas D. Metz

1. Introduction Ice jams are common cold-season events in many mid- and high-latitude countries around the world ( Rokaya et al. 2018 ) that affect up to 60% of river reaches in the Northern Hemisphere ( Bennett and Prowse 2010 ). Multiple ice jam case studies reveal that North America is one of the most ice jam prone regions in the world ( Rokaya et al. 2018 ) and these ice jams can form on many rivers in the U.S. Northeast ( Fig. 1a ). Ice jams form when ice floes accumulate across a river

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G. Q. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Xuan, J. F. Liu, J. L. Jin, Z. X. Bao, R. M. He, C. S. Liu, Y. L. Liu, and X. L. Yan

precipitation, and evapotranspiration for 38 forested watersheds in New England, United States, and concluded climate warming could reduce runoff significantly. Jones et al. (2005) estimated the sensitivities of mean annual runoff in 22 Australian catchments to climate change using selected hydrological models, showing how results varied between models. Wang et al. (2011) analyzed hydrological characteristics of the Liao River basin, China, and its response to climate change and concluded that an increase

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Jinliang Liu and Ronald E. Stewart

1. Introduction Water vapor transport into and out of a region is a major factor associated with its climate. Extensive water budget analyses have been carried out over a number of regions around the world such as the Arctic ( Walsh et al. 1994 ; Serreze et al. 1995 ; Cullather et al. 2000 ), Mississippi River basin ( Roads et al. 1998 ; Betts et al. 1999 ; Roads and Betts 2000 ; Roads 2002 ; Roads et al. 2002 , and many others), and the Mackenzie River basin ( Walsh et al. 1994

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Michael D. Dettinger

of persistent droughts across the United States, with an emphasis on the West Coast, and a quantitative evaluation of the historical role of a particular type of storm—the so-called atmospheric river (AR; Zhu and Newell 1998 )—in ending droughts, particularly along the U.S. West Coast, during the past six decades. By understanding the role of this storm type in the ending, or “busting,” of persistent droughts, greater attention to describing that storm type's frequency of occurrence and in

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Stephen J. Déry, Marc Stieglitz, Åsa K. Rennermalm, and Eric F. Wood

1. Introduction Over the past century, the Arctic has undergone regional warming at rates of 0.5°C or more per decade ( Chapman and Walsh 1993 ). This has induced changes in other hydrometeorological conditions, including an increase in precipitation (e.g., Serreze et al. 2000 ; Walsh 2000 ), an intensification of freshwater discharge from major rivers ( Peterson et al. 2002 ), and an enhancement of evapotranspiration fluxes ( Serreze et al. 2003 ). As Arctic precipitation is augmenting

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