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Camille Lique, Gilles Garric, Anne-Marie Treguier, Bernard Barnier, Nicolas Ferry, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, and Fanny Girard-Ardhuin

1. Introduction The Arctic Ocean is the main reservoir of freshwater (FW) in the World Ocean, as it collects and stores large amounts of freshwater received mainly from large river discharge, inflow of low salinity water from the Pacific Ocean through Bering Strait, and net precipitation over the Arctic Basin. The freshwater is then released to the North Atlantic, as sea ice and low salinity water export along both sides of Greenland, through the Davis and Fram Straits. This freshwater balance

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Qiwei Sun, Yan Du, Shang-Ping Xie, Yuhong Zhang, Minyang Wang, and Yu Kosaka

observations is too sparse to test these hypotheses. As an “ocean rain gauge” the climatological mean sea surface salinity (SSS) is highly correlated with the surface P − E flux field, reflecting the balance between ocean advection and mixing processes and P − E forcing at the ocean surface ( Durack et al. 2012 ; Schmitt 2008 ; Yu 2011 ). SSS provides an opportunity to assess and understand the hydrological cycle changes on global and regional scales ( Boyer et al. 2005 ; Curry et al. 2003

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Saurabh Rathore, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Helen E. Phillips, Ming Feng, and Mayank Mishra

and Nicholls 1983 ; Ashok et al. 2003 ; Risbey et al. 2009 ; Ummenhofer et al. 2009 ; Cai et al. 2012 ) with implications for Australia’s ecosystems and socioeconomic prospects ( NCCARF 2012 ; Holmes 2012 ; Hayes and Goonetilleke 2013 ; Yuan and Yamagata 2015 ). Yet there is still a need to improve the prediction of Australian rainfall through the inclusion of additional variables (such as salinity and soil moisture) to help anticipate such impacts. Our previous study ( Rathore et al. 2020

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Masami Nonaka and Hideharu Sasaki

pathways to the equatorial region through the interior ocean ( Huang and Liu 1999 ; Nonaka and Takeuchi 2001 ). These differences may contribute to the discrepancy in anomalous signal propagations between the North and South Pacific Oceans. Recent studies have shown that significant signals propagate from the tropical/subtropical South Pacific to the equatorial region as wind-forced baroclinic Rossby waves ( Luo and Yamagata 2001 ; Luo et al. 2003 ) and also as temperature–salinity [( T – S ) or

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Nathan D. Anderson, Kathleen A. Donohue, Makio C. Honda, Meghan F. Cronin, and Dongxiao Zhang

the Deep Ocean Observing Strategy (DOOS; http://deepoceanobserving.org ). Responding to this call for deep ocean observations, the OceanSITES program ( http://www.oceansites.org ) proposed expanding the capabilities of existing mooring sites by incentivizing deep temperature and salinity ( T / S ) sensor deployments. As part of the OceanSITES “deep T / S challenge,” each group contributing an instrument receives a matching instrument contributed to the OceanSITES pool by industry and agency

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Biao Chen, Huiling Qin, Guixing Chen, and Huijie Xue

regulating continental precipitation ( Schmitt 1995 ; Yu et al. 2017 ). Besides, the ocean surface evaporation–precipitation flux is highly correlated with the sea surface salinity (SSS) in climatological sense, especially in the subtropical oceans where evaporation and precipitation are predominant in regulating the SSS ( Gordon et al. 2015 ). As the variation of ocean salinity can be observed more accurately than the evaporation or precipitation, the SSS observation can provide a reliable metric of

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Xiaoyan Wei, Henk M. Schuttelaars, Megan E. Williams, Jennifer M. Brown, Peter D. Thorne, and Laurent O. Amoudry

a numerical width-averaged model, they further demonstrated significant variations of the relative importance of GC, and the direct and indirect ESCO circulation components along the Scheldt estuary. However, as longitudinal salinity gradients need to be prescribed in water-column and cross-sectional models and lateral processes are neglected in width-averaged models, the 3D interactions between ATT and salinity gradients remain poorly understood, as well as their influence on the gravitational

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Rashmi Sharma, Neeraj Agarwal, Sujit Basu, and Vijay K. Agarwal

1. Introduction The role of the Indian Ocean (IO) in interannual climate variability is now well recognized. It has been firmly established that there exists an independent coupled ocean–atmosphere mode in the Indian Ocean, known as the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD; Saji et al. 1999 ; Webster et al. 1999 ), characterized in its positive phase by warm SST anomalies in the western Indian Ocean and cold SST anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean. Apart from SST, the sea surface salinity (SSS) is

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Yan Du and Yuhong Zhang

1. Introduction Ocean salinity is an essential variable of ocean dynamics, playing an important role in global climate variability ( Lagerloef 2002 ). Sea surface salinity (SSS) is highly related to local evaporation ( E ) and precipitation ( P ) in the global ocean and to river discharges in the coastal region. In the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO), the SSS shows significant spatial distribution, featuring an east–west contrast and significant SSS tongues at equatorial and southern Indian Ocean

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Pedro Vélez-Belchí, Alonso Hernández-Guerra, Eugenio Fraile-Nuez, and Verónica Benítez-Barrios

salinity was principally due to the downward heave of isopycnals, whereas from 1981 to 1992 it was dominated by changes in water mass characteristics ( Bryden et al. 1996 ). The analyses of the 1992 and 2004 sections also indicated that upper-ocean changes dominate over deep ocean changes ( Parrilla et al. 1994 ; Cunningham and Alderson 2007 ). In addition to these five oceanographic sections, the global array of temperature–salinity free-drifting profiling floats, known as Argo, provides continuous

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