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R. F. Pueschel, R. J. Charlson, and N. C. Ahlquist

explainedon the basis of normal physico-chemical behavior ofsalt solutions. Acknowledgments. We would like to thank Dr.Jaenicke for his valuable suggestions and discussionsand Dr. Gra[3hoff for collecting the sea water samples. REFERENCESBraitsch, O., 1962: Entstehung und Stoffbestand der Sal'zlagerst~tlen in Mineralogie und J~etrographie in EinzeldarstelIungen. Berlin, Springer~Verlag.Harris, A. W., and J. P. Riley, 1964; The direct gravimetric determi nation of the salinity of sea

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Edgar L Andreas

from the Gill sonic anemometer associated with the CIP. “Our Data” identifies the wind speed and temperature data from the turbulence tripod. Fig . 4. Surface water temperature and salinity and significant wave height H 1/3 during the experiment on Mount Desert Rock. In the temperature and salinity panels, the data identified as “Ours” are from manual bucket samples. In the wave-height panel, our estimate of H 1/3 comes from the Andreas and Wang (2007) algorithm and the wind speed is from the

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R. K. Reed

bathythermograph data.The distributions of air temperature, wind speed, andcloud cover are also in reasonable agreement with similar maps of Weare et al. (1981); however, the vaporpressure differences in Fig. 1 are systematically less thantheirs. This results, at least partially, from their neglectof the effect of ocean salinity on saturated vapor pressure (Talley, 1984). In general, the distributions in Fig.I are in good agreement with other presentations basedon different and longer periods and different

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Nathaniel S. Winstead and George S. Young

speeds c of the resulting density currents obey the following law: The parameter k has a value of 0.78 for oceanic salinity fronts ( Keulegan 1957 , 1958 ). In the atmosphere, the value of k is less certain; however, Simpson (1969) summarized observations that indicate that k ranges from 0.38 to 0.9 and presented laboratory results that indicated a value of 0.78. The phase speed given by the model for a g ′ of 0.17 m s −2 is approximately 1.8 m s −1 , giving a value of 0.79 for k. The

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Byung-Ju Sohn, Eui-Seok Chung, Johannes Schmetz, and Eric A. Smith

Liebe (1985) . Optical depths are calculated in a 40-layer model atmosphere, allowing for discrete extinction and emission processes in each 25-hPa homogeneous layer. For surface emissivity over the ocean, the model of Stogryn (1971) is used for mean ocean conditions using an invariant surface wind speed of 5 m s −1 , a sea surface temperature equal to the mean surface air temperature, and a salinity of 35‰. Over land, fixed but spectrally dependent surface emissivities are used. For cloud liquid

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Youlong Xia, Trent W. Ford, Yihua Wu, Steven M. Quiring, and Michael B. Ek

Bertrand 2011 ), sea surface temperatures ( Merchant et al. 2008 ), and ocean salinity ( Ingleby and Huddleston 2007 ); however, considerably fewer have focused on in situ soil moisture quality control ( Illston et al. 2008 ; You et al. 2010 ). Recently, Dorigo et al. (2013) developed a soil moisture quality control methodology to flag erroneous soil moisture measurements in the ISMN. With this algorithm, soil moisture observations are flagged if 1) the volumetric water content is less than 0 m 3 m

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Neil Laird, Alicia M. Bentley, Sara A. Ganetis, Andrew Stieneke, and Samantha A. Tushaus

its great depth and Pyramid Lake because of its high salinity). Lake Tahoe is located 1897 m above mean sea level (MSL) and has a surface area of 495 km 2 ( Coats et al. 2006 ). With a maximum depth of 501 m, Lake Tahoe is the second deepest lake in the United States and the 11th deepest lake in the world ( USGS 2009 ). Lake Tahoe is also surrounded by significant topography, with the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Carson Range to the east. The highest mountain peaks in the surrounding area

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S. Assouline and Y. Mahrer

accurate evaluation of the water loss by evaporation is needed. For example, the Lake Kinneret(northern Israel) water budget is characterized by apractically undefined saline ground water inflow. Aprecise evaluation of this inflow is crucial in order to(i) control the salinity of the lake water; and (ii) understand and model the activity of the complex systemof thermosaline springs at the shoreline and the bottomof the lake. The ground water inflow is estimatedthrough the residuals that balance the

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David Mayers and Christopher Ruf

radiometer, which relates excess emissivity to the wind speed. Some of these instruments operate at a wavelength of 21 cm (L band), which enables penetration through rain. Examples include NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP; L band, at 40-km spatial resolution; Meissner et al. 2017 ; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ), ESA’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS; L band, at ~43-km spatial resolution; Reul et al. 2012 ; Kerr et al. 2010 ), and NASA’s Aquarius (L band, at ~100-km

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Quanhua Liu, Clemens Simmer, and Eberhard Ruprecht

spectrum. For a given frequency, the parameterization of Wisler and Hollinger (1977) needs the sea surface temperature and the salinity to calculate the dielectric constant. The effects of surface roughness and possible foam are parameterized as functions of the sea surface wind speed. Stability is not taken into account, thus a single relation between wind speed and wind stress is assumed. In this study, salinity is set to thirty per thousand for all cases, because in the frequency range of SSM

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