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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

: coastal and orographic inhomogeneity; marine stratus and nimbostratus clouds Amazon basin or Congo basin: deep convection; large latent heat fluxes; high specific humidity; large seasonal variation in rainfall Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, or Greenland Sea: sea ice; sea ice edge; fog and marine stratus clouds F ig . 5-2. Geographical distribution of recommended locales circa 1991 ( Stokes and Schwartz 1994 ). On the basis of the locale recommendations, the ARM management team identified authors to provide

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

−2 K −1 (e.g., Cess 1976 ). In current climate models, radiative feedbacks from water vapor, clouds, and snow/sea ice cover act to reduce α to a range ≈1–2 W m −2 K −1 ; this amplifies the change in temperature in response to a given radiative forcing. Most of the intermodel spread in α is due to differences in predicting the response of clouds to an external forcing ( Cess et al. 1990 ). Feedbacks from water vapor, clouds, snow, and sea ice cover have been well documented in both models

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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

resolved on the CRM’s grid. Downdrafts resolved on the CRM’s grid can produce cold pools in the boundary layer. These processes are poorly resolved because of the CRM’s 4-km horizontal grid spacing, but the results suggest that an explicit representation with poor resolution can be more successful than a current-generation parameterization. b. The Great Red Spot Early work with the SP-CAM was based on the use of prescribed seasonally varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs). As first pointed out by

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Pavlos Kollias, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Thomas P. Ackerman, Bruce A. Albrecht, Kevin B. Widener, Ken P. Moran, Edward P. Luke, Karen L. Johnson, Nitin Bharadwaj, James B. Mead, Mark A. Miller, Johannes Verlinde, Roger T. Marchand, and Gerald G. Mace

1. Introduction As the ARM Program was getting underway in the early 1990s, studies by Ramanathan et al. (1989) and Cess et al. (1990) highlighted the importance of cloud and radiation interactions to climate. Ramanathan et al. (1989) demonstrated that, on average, clouds cool the climate system but that different cloud types can have different influences upon it. Cess et al. (1990) showed that general circulation models have an array of different responses to the same sea surface

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

( Long et al. 2016 , chapter 7; Mather et al. 1998 ). The site development approach at both the NSA and TWP sites used modified 20-foot-long sea containers as housing and constructed the site instrumentation and data systems within them in the United States. These containers were then shipped to the experiment locations and assembled as an observing site there ( Mather et al. 1998 ). The Chief Scientist at the time, Tom Ackerman, had developed a scientific rationale and a deployment strategy for the

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

( Curry et al. 1996 ; Stamnes et al. 1999 ). The melting of snow and sea ice in the Arctic is influenced strongly by the amount of downwelling LW radiation at the surface, which depends primarily on cloud amount and microphysical properties. Determining the characteristics of Arctic clouds from satellite observations is difficult because the highly reflective surface makes it difficult to distinguish clouds from the surface with visible wavelengths, and the nearly constant presence of a surface

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare

themselves remained similar. At the same time, marine biogenic aerosol has increased in the summertime, which has been found in other studies ( O’Dwyer et al. 2000 ) to be correlated with loss of sea ice extent and increase in sea surface temperature. 4. Looking forward In the past five years, the ARM Program has achieved a tremendous expansion of its aerosol observational capabilities with the recognition of the role and uncertainty of aerosol in the climate system. The integration of measurements of

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

network, but rather as a means to improve coverage in the future. Satellite-based observations of the atmosphere and surface provide good global coverage. There will be a dramatic increase in these measurements in the future. The difficulties of using data acquired over land, clouds, and sea ice and the need to thin the data to reduce horizontal error correlations between measurements will be overcome by directly accounting for these observation error correlations. This will permit substantially

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Kazuyoshi Oouchi and Masaki Satoh

1. Introduction The aim of this chapter is to provide a framework that we hope will be of value for understanding the origin of tropical large-scale organized convection over the tropical warm water pool. A super cloud cluster (SCC; Hayashi and Sumi 1986 ; Nakazawa 1988 ), a typical example of this type of convection, is a loosely defined, albeit salient, ensemble of tropical convection of 3000–5000-km scale that propagates eastward over the high sea surface temperature waters in the

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

teleconnection agents. They translate Rossby wave forcing (e.g., from tropical convection, stratospheric-temperature anomalies, and sea-ice anomalies) to regional impacts in areas remote from the original forcing. The role of the storm tracks extends beyond the mere transfer of a disturbance, however. The storm tracks can amplify the low-frequency Rossby waves in the jet stream via eddy feedbacks on the background flow (e.g., Held et al. 1989 ; Hartmann 2007 ). As a consequence of these three reasons, a

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