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Gary Grunseich and Bin Wang

1. Introduction Changes in sea ice coverage have widespread influences on global ocean ( Holland et al. 2001 ) and atmospheric circulation from seasonal to decadal time scales. Influences of spring Arctic sea ice on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM; Guo et al. 2014 ), and the autumn sea ice in different regions of the Arctic on the strength of the winter Asian monsoon ( Chen et al. 2014 ; Mori et al. 2014 ) have been identified. The decline of sea ice extent starting in the late twentieth

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Achim Stössel

1. Introduction It is a major challenge for sea ice–ocean general circulation models (GCMs) to arrive at a reasonable simulation of Southern Ocean sea ice simultaneously with long-term global deep-ocean properties and circulation. This applies to coupled atmosphere–ice–ocean GCMs (e.g., Holland and Raphael 2006 ; Bitz et al. 2005 ; Ogura et al. 2004 ; Jungclaus et al. 2005 ) as much as to ice–ocean GCMs that are forced by atmospheric variables (e.g., Goosse and Fichefet 1999 ; Timmermann

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James W. Hurrell, James J. Hack, Dennis Shea, Julie M. Caron, and James Rosinski

.0) was released in June 2004, and the release included complete collections of component model source code, documentation, and input data, as well as model output from several experiments. The purpose of this note is to document the global sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentration (SIC) boundary dataset that has been developed specifically for uncoupled simulations with present and future versions of CAM. Perhaps the most important field in climate system modeling is SST. A significant

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Ryan Eastman and Stephen G. Warren

1. Introduction Arctic climate has changed dramatically in the past two decades. End-of-summer sea ice extent has declined and reached surprisingly small values in 2007 and 2008 ( Stroeve et al. 2008 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ). Shrinking ice cover has been accompanied by an increase in surface air temperature (SAT) of almost 0.5°C decade −1 from 1979 through 2003, as observed by the International Arctic Buoy Programme ( Rigor et al. 2000 ). Clouds are thought to have an important role in the

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Zhaomin Wang, John Turner, Yang Wu, and Chengyan Liu

1. Introduction During 2014–16 Antarctic sea ice retreated at an unprecedented rate with total sea ice extent (SIE) reaching a record low level in spring 2016 ( Fig. 1 ). This was unexpected, as there had been a small but significant upward trend in total Antarctic SIE since 1978 ( Comiso and Nishio 2008 ; Turner et al. 2009 ; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012 ), with record high daily extents being observed in September 2012 ( Turner et al. 2013 ), 2013 ( Reid et al. 2015 ), and 2014 ( Fetterer

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Zhuo Wang, John Walsh, Sarah Szymborski, and Melinda Peng

1. Introduction The recent decrease of Arctic sea ice coverage is one of the most striking indicators of global environmental change. The Arctic sea ice extent in September, as assessed from satellite observations, has changed significantly, with the pan-Arctic extent in each of the past 13 Septembers (2007–19) all lower than in any years of the earlier satellite era (1979–2006; NSIDC 2018 ). The Arctic is expected to become essentially ice-free during summer by about midcentury ( Notz and

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Jake Aylmer, David Ferreira, and Daniel Feltham

1. Introduction Sea ice is a major component of the climate system, influencing it through its enhanced surface reflectivity compared to the ocean, insulation of the oceans, and role in the thermohaline circulation (e.g., Barry et al. 1993 ). Current and projected loss of Arctic sea ice affects the climate on the global scale, mediated via changes to the atmosphere and ocean circulation ( Budikova 2009 ; Vihma 2014 ; Tomas et al. 2016 ). Antarctic sea ice variability is linked to large

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A. Levermann, J. Mignot, S. Nawrath, and S. Rahmstorf

buoyancy flux because of their impact on deep-water formation. Saenko et al. (2004) examine the role of northern sea ice cover for the overturning circulation during global warming experiments by altering the thermal diffusion coefficient in their atmospheric energy–moisture balance model, thereby producing varying temperature and sea ice extent in northern high latitudes. Their main conclusion is that the initial climate around the subpolar gyre is crucial for understanding the weakening of the THC

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Zheng Liu and Axel Schweiger

1. Introduction How atmosphere and sea ice interact depends on the prevailing weather, which can be characterized by the synoptic condition. Stramler et al. (2011) report that during the wintertime of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) field campaign ( Uttal et al. 2002 ), there were two preferred states of surface and atmospheric conditions with distinct signatures in the surface net longwave radiative fluxes: a warm and opaquely cloudy state with low surface pressure, and a cold

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Laura Landrum, Marika M. Holland, David P. Schneider, and Elizabeth Hunke

1. Introduction The Antarctic sea ice cover undergoes a large seasonal range from a climatological maximum of approximately 19 million km 2 in extent in September to a minimum of 3 million km 2 in February (e.g., Cavalieri and Parkinson 2008 ) ( Fig. 1 ). The seasonal cycle of ice advance and retreat is influenced by the dominant seasonality in the atmosphere and the semiannual oscillation (SAO)—a biannual (spring and autumn) strengthening and poleward migration of the circumpolar trough (e

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