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A. E. E. Rogers, M. Lekberg, and P. Pratap

filters in the downconveter, is used for the ozone line. To minimize systematic effects, frequency switching is used to obtain a difference spectrum with the ozone line centered in the lower quarter band and then inverted in the center of the upper three-quarter band. Following an accumulation of 90 s, the upper-half-band spectrum is subtracted from the lower-half-band spectrum and a 625-kHz band centered on the ozone line is stored to disk for subsequent averaging. The theoretical noise in the

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Joseph Egger and Klaus-Peter Hoinka

resides above the mountain. Further theories of topographic instability evolved quickly after the seminal contribution by CDV . The baroclinic case was first considered by Charney and Straus (1980) for channel flow. Pedlosky (1981) included nonlinear effects. The horizontal resolution of the models has been enhanced as well. Jin and Ghil (1990) investigated barotropic topographic instability for more general basic flows than admitted by CDV . They found a dipole topographic instability that

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S-K. Lee, D. B. Enfield, and C. Wang

overlying atmosphere, thus affecting the deep tropical convection in the Western Hemisphere ( Wang and Enfield 2003 ), and the rainfall over the continental United States and Central America ( Bosilovich 2002 ; Wang et al. 2006 ). In our previous observational work, Enfield and Lee (2005 , hereafter EL05 ) showed that the seasonal warming of the WHWP is largely forced by the shortwave radiation cycle (with modification by cloud cover in the ENP), while the latent heat flux plays a secondary but

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Lidou Huyan, Jianping Li, Sen Zhao, Cheng Sun, Di Dong, Ting Liu, and Yufei Zhao

the effects of climate change, revealing patterns of seasonal precipitation variability, and generating new theories and methods for climate prediction. Therefore, the EASM variability and its related climate anomalies have received considerable attention ( Li et al. 2011a , b , 2013 ). Numerous studies have investigated the EASM and have focused on, for example, the characteristics and variability of the EASM ( Li et al. 2004 ; Qian 2005 ; He et al. 2006 ), interaction between the EASM and El

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Gilles Molinié, Davide Ceresetti, Sandrine Anquetin, Jean Dominique Creutin, and Brice Boudevillain

heavy rainfall situations. Previous research indicates that a potential climatological relationship between the rainfall and the topography depends on the temporal scale of analysis. At the daily time scale or longer, a rainfall–relief relationship seems to exist. The rainfall climatology of Alpine regions of Frei and Schär (1998) locates the highest annual and seasonal rainfall depth above the mountain ranges. At the event time scale, Alpert (1986) , over the Judean Mountains in Israel, Michaud

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Haiyan Jiang and Edward J. Zipser

Events. J. Climate , 13 , 2960 – 2972 . Chan , J. C. L. , J. E. Shi , and C. M. Lam , 1998 : Seasonal forecasting of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. Wea. Forecasting , 13 , 997 – 1004 . Chen , S. S. , J. A. Knaff , and F. D. Marks , 2006 : Effects of vertical wind shear and storm motion on tropical cyclone rainfall asymmetries deduced from TRMM. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 3190 – 3208 . Gan , M. A. , V. E. Kousky , and C

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Eun-Pa Lim and Ian Simmonds

the vertical shear is strong enough to dominate the β effect (BP > 1), the vertical and horizontal growth of a disturbance can be large. The maximum Eady growth rate is also widely used as a measure of baroclinicity. Although Eady’s model ignores the effects of the earth’s sphericity and makes the assumption of a rigid upper boundary, previous studies have shown that the basic dynamics of baroclinic instability and the predictions of the features of baroclinic waves are well represented by Eady

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Thomas Loridan, C. S. B. Grimmond, Brian D. Offerle, Duick T. Young, Thomas E. L. Smith, Leena Järvi, and Fredrik Lindberg

location ( K clear ). This is obtained from ( Crawford and Duchon 1999 ) where I EX is the extraterrestrial (or “top” of the atmosphere) insolation, Z is the solar zenith angle, and τ is the atmospheric transmissivity parameterized from measured surface pressure, temperature, and relative humidity to represent the combined effects of Rayleigh scattering, absorption by permanent gases and water vapor, and absorption–scattering by aerosols. Such a representation of cloud coverage is not applicable

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Susan A. Crate

approaches to facilitate effective adaptation ( Parry et al. 2007 ; Crate and Nuttall 2009 ). One of the main effects, as climate change proceeds, is the unprecedented alteration of earth’s water regimes 2 ( Anderson et al. 2008 ; Stohlgren et al. 2007 ; van Dam 2003 ). Bates et al. (2008 , p. 3) wrote on water resources: Observational records and climate projections provide abundant evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable and have the potential to be strongly impacted by climate change

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Jeffrey Shaman

for the Niño-3.0 region (5°N–5°S, 150°–90°W) was the index of ENSO used for this study ( Kaplan et al. 1998 ). European seasonal weather is strongly affected by the NAO ( Hurrell and van Loon 1997 ; Rodó et al. 1997 ; Rimbu et al. 2001 ; Efthymiadis et al. 2007 ). Consequently, the seasonal effects of the NAO on European precipitation, as well as its covariability with ENSO, were also explored. Two indices of the NAO were used in this study: 1) a 1950–2013 monthly principal component (PC

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